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The panoramic landscape is underlain by various geological types such as:

  • Outcrops of the andesitic lavas of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, which is mostly overlain by calcrete and occurs in isolated patches as rocky hills.
  • Dolerite intrusions mostly occurring as dykes found in the rocky hills.
  • Outcrops of tillite of the Dwyka formation.
  • Shale of the Prince Albert Formation (Karoo Sequence).

The largest part of park is mainly underlain by aeolian sand of tertiary to recent age covering the Dwyka tillite. The soil type varies from deep red and yellow sands (Hutton- and Clovelly soil forms) to shallow and stony (Mispah- and Kimberley soil forms); while the pans are very clayey (> 30% clay content) with the dominant soil forms Arcadia and Oakleaf.

In terms of Acocks’ classification (1953) the vegetation of the park consists of Kalahari Thornveld Proper (Veld Type 16). According to the new vegetation map by Mucina et al. (2005) two vegetation units occur in the park namely Kimberley Thornveld (Svk4) and Vaalbos Rocky Shrubland (Svk5) of which both are part of the Savanna Biome.

Bordering towards the north is a very important unit called the Northern Upper Karoo (Nku 3) which forms part of the Nama Karoo Biome.

One of conservation objectives of the park is to conserve the interface of two biomes, (Savanna Biome and the Nama-Karoo Biome). Being a national park, it should serve as a permanent reference area for wider exploration surveys in the Northern Cape region.