#didyouknow

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Created by Zahira Sayed

#KnowYourPark#DidYouKnow#
The Era 1926 to 1946
In September 1929 the Vacuum Oil Company approached the National Parks Board with a request to sell Pegasus petrol in the Kruger Park. By December 1929 Shell also applied to sell petrol in the Park.
During August 1930 Pegasus petrol, provided by the Vacuum Oil Company was made available at Satara and Letaba. At the December 1930 Board meeting it was suggested that only one company should be allowed to sell petrol in the Park after a third company, the Texas Company had also applied.
In 1931 the Shell Company was granted permission to provide petrol at Skukuza, and in October 1931, the Warden was given authority to negotiate the provision of petrol at Crocodile Bridge and Malelane with the Vacuum Oil Company and the Shell company respectively.
It had been decided that these would be the only two petrol companies allowed.
Source: Salomon Joubert Volume 1 “The Kruger National Park History”.
Attached some pictures of the original pumps and petrol advertisement
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Created by Amoré Scholtz

#DidYouKnow
The Camdeboo National Park is located in the Eastern Cape, in the town of Graaff-Reinet.
The Valley Of Desolation is located within this beautiful National Park. The site is visited by approximately 100 000 people each year. The spectacular panoramic views from the top of the valley leaves visitors speechless. The viewpoints provide views of piled dolerite columns against the backdrop of the plains of the Great Karoo. The landscape is a result of erosive and volcanic forces of nature over a period of 200 million years.
The beautiful National Park also offers approximately 19 km’s of gravel roads for visitors to explore indigenous species in their natural habitat, bird hides for those birding enthusiasts, picnic areas, walking trails and 4x4 trails. Nearly 250 bird species and various mammals including the Springbok, Blesbok, Eland, Kudu and the Cape Mountain Zebra can be found within the park, just to name a few.
This Beautiful Park is a must visit and for more information on the Park and accommodation please visit https://www.sanparks.org/parks/camdeboo/default.php
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Created by Norma Sharrat

#Didyouknow
Beetle Mania in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park
Did you know that Golden Gate Highlands National Park has a surprising diversity of beetles, thanks to the ubiquitous Ouhout trees (Leucosidea sericea) scattered throughout the park. No fewer than 117 species of beetles belonging to 35 different families have been found associated with these trees.
Leucosidea sericea is a member of the Rosaceae (or Rose) family and is a distant relative of cultivated fruit trees, such as apples and pears - although there are few indigenous species in South Africa. The genus name Leucosidea is derived from the Greek word meaning "white or grey" (possibly referring to the pale lower surfaces of the leaves) and the species name (sericea) is Latin for "silky", referring to the silky hairs on the leaves. The bark is gnarled and knotted, giving it its very descriptive common name, “oldwood”
Ouhout trees are found scattered across mountain slopes, along streams and within sun-dappled evergreen forests at altitudes above 1,000 metres. During spring, they bear yellowy-green nectar-producing flowers which are attractive to a range of insects, including bees, butterflies and beetles. These, in turn, attract a number of insectivorous birds.
So, when you next visit Golden Gate, be sure to visit a lowly Ouhout tree or thicket and try to spot a beetle or two. You might be surprised by what all you find.
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Created by Jenny Bell

Mopane Worms as a Protein supplement: Is it sustainable?
These brightly coloured worms that we see in the summer months on various host plants, but specifically the Mopane Tree (Colophospermum mopane) are the larval form of the Gonimbrasia belina moth. Probably the most import insect in Southern Africa from a cultural point of view as it is a popular source of protein for many rural families, with the harvesting of the worms being a way many people (harvesters & traders) make a living. The Mopane tree’s leaves contain a very high percentage of protein (12-15%) which the worms eat and assimilate into their own body making them a rich protein supplement for rural people.
So where does the Mopane worm come from? As mentioned, the Mopane worm is actually the larval stage of the G. Belina moth. The large moth lays its eggs on plants, with the Mopane tree being the preferred host plant, hence its name. Small worms hatch from the white eggs and after several moults reach maturity, the stage most desirable for harvesting. The worms that are not harvested will move down from the trees and pupate underground, later emerging as a new moth. The lifecycle continues with the moths mating & the female laying eggs – a complete or Holometabolic life cycle. If too many worms are harvested, not enough worms remain to pupate & emerge as adult moths to continue the lifecycle of the insect; over-harvesting can therefore not sustain a viable annual harvest.
In order to sustain the harvesting of Mopane worms in rural areas many myths need to be dispelled. For example, it is believed that when the worms leave the trees to burrow into the ground they are going to die, when in fact they are merely moving underground to pupate & complete their life cycle. It is also believed that if the ashes from the fire used to dry the worms are spread during a ritual that the worms will return to an area. The traditional way to dry them is in the sun or to smoke them over an open fire for additional flavour.
Unfortunately, many rural areas have been overharvested, so poor families have to travel great distances to harvest the worms, losing profits in the process. Re-introduction to an area is possible but in order for this to be sustainable it would require the co-operation and support of the local community – no harvesting until there is a sustainable population! Domestication is an option but would probably become too expensive and not benefit the poorest of the poor, the very people that need the worms to make a living.
Did you know the Mopane worm appears on the 5 Pula coin of Botswana?
Phane (Tswana) Amacimbi (Indebele) Masonja (Venda) Madora (Shona)
#KnowYourPark
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Created by Tamara Brown

#DidYouKnow Last month (June) was the 61st anniversary of the opening of the new Olifants Camp? A most beautiful camp with its stunning views. According to my mom, the old one was just as beautiful, but very different. It consisted of perhaps 8 - 10 huts with metal beds and you brought your own bedding. There was a central braai where everyone cooked their food and you walked through the bush to a longdrop toilet. All this surrounded by a chicken-wire fence as she recalls. There was a small wooden gate and a guard who accompanied you on the steep slope down to the river. It was a real adventure, with many animals that came through - monkeys, baboons, snakes, leopards - and more came very close by. One was always close to the sounds and smells. The picture is the view from the restaurant.
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Created by Tebogo Lukhele

Lions can actually see 8times better than humans and actually cannot distinguish the colour red. Lions eyes will reflect back when u shine a light at night, this is called tapetum lucidum, this is a reflective mirror that gives them better eye vision at night. Their eyes also have a second eyelid which is called a nictitating membrane which removes dust, water that comes into the eye, we humans use our hands while they use the nictitating membrane. Lions also have a binocular vision and they can see better forward than side to side, they don't turn their eyes but their head to see sideways.
Article - Tebogo
Pic- Indri
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Created by Val Stephens

#DidYouKnow
Observing Buffalo Behaviour.
Now I am going to start by saying that I am by no means a Buffalo expert, so please don’t expect a myriad of clever facts concerning them.
The following is just an incident that my late husband and I observed one day, a few years ago, which we found quite fascinating.
It was a lovely sunny day, warm with blue skies, but not too hot, and we were parked up on the high-level bridge a few kms north of Letaba.
We were parked on the left-hand side, facing Letaba, and there was just one other vehicle parked a bit further away.
We were living in Phalaborwa at the time, and we often drove to Letaba for a chicken mayo toastie, and then drove up as far as the bridge.
As I said, we were parked on the left-hand side of the bridge, watching some hippos wallowing in the water, when we noticed a few Buffalo walking down the bank to the riverbed. They were led by a huge male, and they followed him literally in line “two by two”.
The male stopped at the water’s edge, and the rest of them bent down to drink, again “two by two”. Once they had slaked their thirst, they turned round and formed a new line (still “two by two”) and proceeded to walk back to the bank, where they began to graze.
There must have been up to 700 Buffalo in all, and they just kept filing in line “two by two” to the river’s edge, having a much-needed drink and then filing back in line to the bank.
We were both thrilled to witness this, and then the elderly occupants of the only other vehicle on the bridge, walked back to our car, to say that in 60 years of visiting the park (hubby and I had been visiting for 40 years) they had never witnessed anything like it.
They were so well behaved, waiting patiently for their turn to drink (overseen by the large male) and we all wondered whether a group of 700 thirsty humans would have behaved in the same way.
This whole process took about 30 mins, from start to finish, and as the last ones climbed back up the bank and disappeared, we realised the expression “right place right time” can be so apt. Several cars arrived on the bridge just after they had all gone and would have no idea what they had missed. Several cars had actually driven over the bridge while this was all happening, but none of them chose to stop, so they missed out.
P.S. I was so engrossed in the proceedings that I forgot to take any photos until almost the end of the proceedings, so I’m afraid that the accompanying photo here is not particularly good. It might however just give you an idea of what we witnessed.
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Created by Rodney Bell

Did you know that we have a butterfly found nowhere else in the World?
In the Marakele National Park of South Africa (& a very restricted area related to the south facing upper scree slopes of the Kransberg Mountain close to Thabazimbi), one can find a butterfly that is endemic to that region, meaning that it is found nowhere else in the World – this very special butterfly is the Kransberg Widow (Dingana jerinae).
At the top of winding Lenong Drive up the mountain in the Marakele NP, you will find the Lenong viewpoint when you get to the end of the road on top of the mountain. This viewpoint is renowned for being a great spot to observe the colony of Cape Vultures that nest on nearby cliffs. As you are allowed to exit your vehicle at this lookout point, it is also an opportunity for you to observe the endemic Kransberg Widow butterfly.
The Kransberg Widow butterfly has a wingspan of 65–72 mm, is dark brown in colour with distinctive cream-coloured bars on the forewings. There are two eyespots with light centres & a row of eyespots with orange surrounds on the forewings & hindwings respectively. The larvae of this butterfly feed on grass, after hatching from eggs dropped by females (the female seldom settles to lay her eggs). The larvae feed for a long period (up to 11 months) before a pupation period of 2 weeks. Adult butterflies are most active during the month of November during early mornings, flitting amongst grass clumps around the viewing site & occasionally settling on plant flowers to feed on nectar.
As you alight from your vehicle at the parking area for the view site, there is an information board providing a wealth of information relating to the Kransberg Widow.
So, when you visit the Marakele National Park in November, be sure to take the journey up Lenong Drive to look out for this very special butterfly at the viewing point on top of the mountain.
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Created by Val Stephens

Garden Route National Park
#didyouknow #knowyourparks #liveyourwild #gardenroutenationalpark
Black Oyster Catcher (Information credit: Two Oceans Aquarium) (photo credit: Oyster catcher trail)
Posting for Maryna Bouwer, who put this very interesting article together
Oystercatchers are shorebirds that live on temperate and tropical coasts around the world, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. There are 12 known species worldwide. They are black to black-brown, or black and white in colour, depending on the species. Oystercatchers have strong, dagger-like beaks that enable them to feed on mussels, limpets and worms. They rarely eat oysters!
The African black Oystercatcher
The African black oystercatcher is found only on the coasts of South Africa and Namibia. Birds that live on rocky shores feed mainly on mussels and limpets, while those found on sandy shores eat sand mussels. Estuarine oystercatchers typically eat cockles and pencil-bait.
Mates for life
The African black oystercatcher mates for life and some pairs have been known to live together for up to 20 years. These birds start breeding at three to four years of age. They breed once a year at the onset of summer and lay one to three (usually two) greenish stony-coloured eggs in a simple nest on sand or rocks, which is often no more than a scrape in the ground. Both parents incubate the eggs, which hatch after about 32 days. During the breeding period the parents, eggs and chicks are vulnerable to natural predators such as jackals, genets, snakes and gulls. Humans, their vehicles and dogs pose additional threats because oystercatchers breed at the height of the summer holiday season, when human use of the coast is at its peak.
Support the Oystercatcher Conservation Programme
In 1998, the African black oystercatcher was considered a threatened species and, to protect it from further decline, the Oystercatcher Conservation Programme was initiated by the Percy Fitzpatrick Institute of African Ornithology at the University of Cape Town. SANParks work closely with the conservation bodies to protect this beautiful bird for our future generations.
Due to the efforts of this programme and increased food availability, thanks to the rapid spread of the alien Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), the number of African black oystercatchers is now on the rise. It is predicted that a recent ban on beach driving will also have a positive effect on the species’ population growth, mainly by reducing mortality rates of eggs and chicks. Further good news is that the species is now listed as Near Threatened and soon to be Least Concern.
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Creared by Rosemary Hancock

#DidYouKnow
Kiddies Holiday Programme at Letaba
Ever wondered what your kids could do and enjoy while in camp during your Kruger holiday?
Letaba Camp has it all organised for you.
Did you know that there is a full activity programme on offer for children during the June/July and December/January holiday periods?
With the school holidays being extended due to Covid 19 restrictions and if there is enough demand the programme could possibly extended to 26 July for this holiday period.
Looking at feedback from visitors who participated this month it seems like a great experience.
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Created by Les Morgan

African Monarch Butterfly
Danaus chrysippus, known as the African Monarch, is a common butterfly found throughout South Africa. The African Monarch is believed to be one of the first butterflies to be used in art. A 3500-year-old Egyptian fresco in Luxor features the oldest illustration of this species.
Monarchs lay their eggs on plants in the milkweed species of plants and monarch caterpillars feast on the plant. Eating milkweed makes the monarch caterpillar poisonous as the plants contain a high level of toxins. Predators leave the colourful monarch caterpillar alone – they don’t like their yucky taste! Although the poison isn’t fatal to humans, we don’t suggest you eat a monarch caterpillar.
All butterflies, monarchs included, taste with their feet. They have taste receptors on their feet which help them to identify their host plant. The butterfly will ‘stomp’ on the leaves to release plant juices and then she’ll ‘test’ them to make sure it’s the right plant on which to the lay her eggs
The butterfly, whose diet is liquid only, must slurp up his food using his proboscis, a long, curled-up tube that forms the butterfly’s mouth. While nectar, a liquid high in sugar, makes up the butterfly’s diet, he also needs minerals for reproduction. A butterfly sits on the edge of a puddle and sips the water. Scientists call this behaviour ‘puddling’.
Aposematic coloration is the bright colouring used to inform would be predators that it would not be a good idea to eat the creature. The African Monarch coloration is mimicked by several butterflies due to its poisonous nature to trick predators into thinking they are also toxic; this is known as Batesian Mimicry. An example of this is the female Common Diadem.
Often the easiest way to tell the mimic from the real butterfly is in its flight pattern. Monarchs have a slow, lazy flight pattern, where as the mimic will have a faster, more eratic flight pattern.
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1. After mating, the monarch butterfly lays her eggs on a leaf of the host plant, usually on the underside of the leaves. Eggs are white in colour, bullet-shaped and very tiny.
2. The tiny caterpillars hatch after about four days and are plain white. Their very first meal is their egg casing. They then start feasting on milkweed leaves – and moult and grow… and moult and grow… for about a fortnight. The mature caterpillar develops beautiful coloured patterns as he sheds his old skin and grows a new one.
3. Once fully grown, and beautifully coloured, the caterpillar attaches himself to a stem or leaf and starts to form a green casing around himself. This is called a chrysalis and when complete, measures about 2cm in length. Magic happens inside the chrysalis – a process called metamorphosis – where nature breaks down the caterpillar’s body and transforms it into a pupa.
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Created by Steve and Maryna Bouwer

Park History
The key conservation areas of West Coast National Park are the Langebaan Lagoon and the offshore islands in Saldanha Bay, which together form the Langebaan Ramsar site, a wetland of international importance. The lagoon has a rich diversity of marine invertebrates and seaweeds and supports approximately 10% of the coastal wader population in South Africa. The offshore islands provide important nesting areas for several red-listed seabird species. The Langebaan Lagoon was proclaimed as a marine reserve in terms of the Sea Fisheries Act in 1973 and later in 1985, was proclaimed Langebaan National Park with the name later being changed to West Coast National Park. It was on 25 April 1988 that the Langebaan Ramsar site was declared. Today the park, including the lagoon, islands, contractual areas and MPAs, covers some 40 000ha.
About the West Coast National Park:
In the South African Context, the saltmarshes of Langebaan are unique in that no river feeds into the lagoon. These salt marshes constitute approximately 32% of the entire saltmarsh habitat in the country, the largest in South Africa. The lagoon is entirely marine with a relatively stable salinity and supports dense populations of molluscs and crustaceans as well as 71 species of different marine algae. The lagoon also serves as a nursery for the development of juvenile fish; the extensive intertidal areas of the lagoon support up to 55 000 water birds in summer, most of which are waders (23 species), including 15 regular Palaearctic migrants. The five islands of Saldanha Bay to the north of the Lagoon provide a home for nearly a quarter of a million sea birds, many of which are endemic to the nearshore regions of South Africa and Namibia.
Eve's Footprint and Trail
Discovered in 1995 at Kraalbaai, these prints are unmistakable human footfalls in rock (formerly sea sand) and are said to have belonged to a young woman who lived 117 000 years ago. The original prints are housed at the Iziko Museums’ South African National Museum in Cape Town, but the replica can be viewed at the Geelbek Information Centre inside West Coast National Park. Eve's Trail is a 2.5 day, fully portered and catered hike through the park, tracing the footsteps of Eve. The trail is a 30km wilderness hike, consisting of 3 legs connected through a series of West Coast-style meals and transfers.
Geelbek Restaurant has a proud South African heritage that date back to the 1700's. Situated inside the West Coast National Park; right on the picturesque Langebaan lagoon; it offers spectacular views of the Park and lagoon and surrounded with breathtaking natural vistas of flamingos and other birdlife, with a huge variety of game and wildlife. This Cape Dutch building is a national monument and is known world-wide for its distinctive mouth-watering dishes that will entice your palate and enchant your senses. This beautiful setting offers succulent South African meals and dishes such as: Cape Malay Chicken Curry, Bobotie, Pumpkin Pie, Venison Pie, Lamb Potjie, Geelbek Mussels, Vegetable Quiche, Crab Cakes, Ostrich Mediterranean Open-Roti Burger and many, many more all-time favourites. Geelbek Restaurant is well known for its Sunday Buffet, Christmas Lunches, Mother's and Father's Day Buffets, and other catering for other popular holidays throughout the year. Geelbek is also renowned for its remarkable hospitality during flower seasons in August and September months.
Activities Galore
West Coast National Park boasts a number of activities that the whole family can enjoy –
• take a walk or more strenuous hike;
• mountain bike on one of the cycling routes in the park;
• kayak and kite-board in the Langebaan Lagoon;
• scout for the hundreds of bird species found in the park in one of the four bird hides;
• picnic and braai at some of the specially built facilities in the park;
• watch for whales in August and September from the Tsaarsbank section of the park;
• explore the park from the comfort of your vehicle (car/motorbike) and view Game in their natural habitat.
All images Steve Bouwer - Mussels at Geelbek Restaurant, African Black Oystercatcher, view from hide.
All information courtesy of Sanparks Website.
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Created by Steve Bouwer

Tankwa Karoo National Park
#didyouknow #knowyourpark #liveyourwild
Article compiled by Steve Bouwer.
Park History
Named after the Tankwa River that runs through the park as the main water provider in an otherwise semi-desert area, the Park was proclaimed in 1986. Since then, high biodiversity land has been added by SANParks to increase the conservation area from the original 27,064 ha to nearly 146,373 ha in early 2014. Lying between the Cederberg Mountains and the Great Karoo escarpment, it incorporates three distinct ecosystems - pure desert in the west, open grasslands in the centre and the Roggeveld Mountains in the east. The Roggeveld range is the start of the escarpment and a vital contributor to the park's water supply.
Activities
Self-drive Game Viewing
Visitors may enjoy wildlife viewing in their own vehicles during the Park's allowed driving times. Times may vary according to season. Tankwa Karoo also allows motorcycles to traverse the park which makes for a unique experience.
Bird Watching
The ideal place to see various Karoo endemics on self-drive viewings during the Park's allowed driving times. Not to be missed is the annual Tankwa Birding Bonanza held during April, where birders, beginners to expert twitchers, can have a friendly competition to test their knowledge against others'. The event is hosted by the SANParks Honorary Rangers and has various sponsors.
4x4 Trails
The park has a number of off-road tracks with two major 4x4 routes for the more advanced enthusiast, namely Leeuberg 4x4 Eco-trail and the Watervlei 4x4 Route.
Hiking and Cycling
No hiking or bicycling trails currently exist within the Park. However, overnight visitors are allowed to make use of marked roads within the immediate vicinity of their booked facility. No walking or bicycling is allowed in the rest of the Park.
Scenic Viewpoints
The park has two viewpoints, namely Gannaga Pass and Elandsberg, where visitors are allowed to exit vehicles.
Tanqua Karoo National Park has a variety of accommodation types to suit all preferences and is definitely worth a visit.
https://www.sanparks.org/.../tourism/accommodation.php
All images Copyright Sanparks
All information courtesy of Sanparks Website.
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Created by Jenny Bell

Thulamela: Visit to a Walled City
If you are ever in the north of the Kruger National Park, remember to reserve a place on a guided tour of the archaeological site of Thulamela. After years of wondering what was beyond the no entry sign at the end of Nyala Drive (S64) near the Pafuri Picnic Site, we finally reserved our places on a tour. We opted to join the tour at the site, whilst others on the tour were driven to the site from Punda Maria rest camp by SANParks rangers.
After a safety briefing, the rangers led the way to the site, via a well demarcated route, which is positioned at the top of a hill. Following the ‘re-discovery’ of the site (there is some debate as to who and when this happened), the site was respectfully excavated by a team of archaeologists, and with the input from local descendants of the original inhabitants, the area has been partially reconstructed and SANParks conducts tours to the site. Our guide for the tour, Eric Maluleke, was extremely well informed and was in fact a stone mason working at the site during the reconstruction phase, which started in 1992 and ended when the site was opened to the public in 1996.
Various artifacts from the site have been carbon dated and indicate habitation of the site occurred from approx. 1240 AD to 1700 AD. The area was inhabited by around 2000 people who probably spoke Shona or Venda. The site was likely chosen due to fertile soil in the area being suitable for growing crops. There is evidence that the Thulamela settlement had links with other walled cities such as Mapungubwe and even other sites north of the Limpopo in modern day Zimbabwe.
Of the artifacts discovered during excavations, probably the most significant from an archaeological point of view was the discovery of two skeletons, one male and one female. Due to the amount of gold adorning the male it was assumed he was the king. He was named King Ingwe, meaning Leopard, by the archeologists & diggers. The female skeleton was DNA tested, which showed she was not related to the king but assumed to be nobility nonetheless. She was found lying on her side with her palms together and hands under her left temple. This form of respectful greeting being called “losha” in Venda; hence the female skeleton was named Queen “Losha”. The significance lies not in the find but the way in which the excavation was undertaken. The skeletons were unearthed, samples taken for testing and reburied on site in a traditional ceremony with the local communities involved – a world first!
It’s well worth a visit and the fact that it is situated in one of the most spectacular areas of the Kruger Park makes the trip even more worthwhile. It’s fascinating to discover the history of the area and its’ inhabitants whilst sitting under an ancient Baobab tree listening to Eric.
Information from SANParks website.(7/8/2021)
Thulamela Trail
• Cost: R240 per person payable at Punda Maria camp.
• Booking: It is advisable to make a prior booking at least one week in advance.
• Age group: 12 years and above.
• Group size: minimum of 2, maximum of 8.
• Pick-up point: Punda Maria and Pafuri picnic sites.
• Departure time: 07:00 a.m.
• Transport: Provided in the form of a ten-seater open safari vehicle. Own transport is also allowed.
• Refreshments: No food or drinks are available.
• Requirements: Water bottle, cap and camouflaged clothing. Safety boots are preferable.
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ritad
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Re: #didyouknow

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Created by Steve and Maryna Bouwer

SANParks extends their hospitality services.
#didyouknow #knowyourparks# liveyourwild #sanparks
We have all seen the wooden boxes in the SANParks rest camps and most of us know they are bat houses but do we all know they work?
There is a constant need for roosting places for our nocturnal flying mammals in National Parks as they invade the thatched roofs of chalets where their guano causes unpleasant smells. Squirrels and bees often invade bat dwellings and there is therefore an ongoing need for newly installed bat boxes as a necessity.
The bats are extremely useful in controlling the insect population, especially mosquitos in rest camps which may cause health hazards towards guests, as one bat can devour thousands of mosquitos in one evening. A single bat house may become home to 100 or so bats, which will consume up to 60,000 insects a night.
The Highveld region’s Honorary Rangers came forward with the most effective design after lots of research and studies. It is a drawn-out process to design and build the boxes from scratch, but the installation of the boxes on six-metre high stilts, was even more demanding. The first twenty custom-built bat boxes were erected in Berg & Dal and Crocodile Bridge rest camps as well as Crocodile Bridge staff village during 2017. The project has gradually expanded to other rest camps in KNP for the bats to flourish in a safe environment where they can be observed hunting at dusk and returning to their roosts at dawn. When placing the bat box you have to make sure your little guest’s needs come first. The size of the house needs to be correct, it has to have a sunny location preferably east facing and at least 5 meters high from the ground. It needs material for the bats to roost on as well as different slots to be installed in the bat houses (see photo above).
Information credit: Freeme, Siyabona Africa, SANParks.
Photo credit of the bat: Freeme
Other photos: Maryna Bouwer.
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