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Malaria precautions for toddlers & during pregnancy

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stelliegp123
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Re: Malaria risk in August/September

Unread postby stelliegp123 » Tue Jul 24, 2012 10:46 am

We usually go in August every year... I took my little one to the park for the first time when he was 6 months old.

1. Satara is also a safe place

2. take mosquito nets and stay in a rondawel with aircon

3. I gave my little on Malanil that time, but that was a total disaster! he had fever of 40 degrees at one stage, we take mefliam nowadays and it really does work for us.

4. Buy some of the Mozzi stickers, you can stick it on clothes, camping cots etc and Dischem have a very good baby lotion against mozzies.

I dont take any chances, I had Malaria last year April (not from the Kruger though) and I thought I was going to die. Not something to play with...

If in doubt, wait another year. Prevention is better than cure.


Good luck with the little one! :k

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Siobain
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Re: Malaria risk in August/September

Unread postby Siobain » Tue Jul 24, 2012 6:08 pm

onewithnature wrote: I have, from time to time, been making fairly comprehensive contributions to malaria and its prevention on other threads on the SANParks forum, so I am not going to give extensive details on everything discussed above today, but would indeed like to add comments where appropriate:

Quote:
While the risk of malaria is low in both Kruger National Park and Mapungubwe National Park, the risk is there, so if you go to either park you should know what to do.



Firstly, this statement covers the malaria risk areas amongst the SANParks reserves, but these are not the only malaria risk areas in Southern Africa (I am concentrating on this part of the world because this is the areas that we are dealing most with here on the forums): for example, several areas of Kwazulu-Natal have malarial risk (although mostly low- and medium-risk); parts of Swaziland and some northern parts of Botswana are also seasonal-risk areas, as is Kruger and Mapungubwe; and some countries, like Mozambique, are high-risk areas all year round; while some areas bordering and near Kruger Park and Mapungubwe also contain malaria-infection potential, although generally of a low-risk nature all year round. NOTE: For detailed areas of malaria risk in Southern Africa (and of course anywhere in the world), please consult a competent and up-to-date malaria-risk map!

Secondly, defining a low-risk malarial area depends on the number of reported cases of malaria found in that area. The high-risk season for malaria in both Kruger and Mapungubwe (end of September until end of May) is considered relatively low-risk as compared to all-year-round high-risk areas like Mozambique, most of Tropical Africa, Malawi, and so on. As stated, the risk is lower than many other countries with malaria risk, but it is not wise to ignore that risk.

Thirdly, risk of contracting malaria may rise in some susceptible people, depending on, for example, age, health, how often you get bitten, and when you get bitten.


Quote:
Especially pregnant woman should do so [get appropriate and competent professional advice], your baby is at risk!
Also keep in mind that children under 5 kilos can not take antimalarials, so the only protection they have is mosquito repellant soaps and spray..


Because the unborn foetus and young children are particularly at risk of morbidity and mortality from contracted malaria, the first recommendation for pregnant women and young children is NOT to enter a malaria-risk area unless it is absolutely necessary. If the latter, then every suitable non-drug, plus chemoprophylactic (antimalaria medication), measure must be used to prevent contracting malaria; and only after thorough and competent professional advice has been received.


Quote:
Malaria is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito, these mosquitoes usually bite between dusk and dawn, in the night. To avoid being bitten, remain indoors in a screened or air-conditioned area during the peak biting period.


It is the female anopheles mosquito that may transmit malaria, and she mostly bites between dusk and dawn, with peak biting periods usually closer to midnight, and again in the early hours of the morning prior to dawn. These mosquitoes usually enter human dwellings from around 5 p.m. - 10 p.m., and again in the early hours of the morning, and biting begins anywhere from dusk until dawn. Try to avoid going outside at these times and stay inside a suitably protected dwelling (e.g. intact mosquito nets on the doors and windows, anti-mosquito mats, use of citronella products, and so on).


Quote:
You may have heard that taking antimalarial drugs masks the actual malaria. This is not strictly true, but it is harder to diagnose as for instance the parasite count is lower. So if you have malaria-like symptoms have you medic look twice. The malaria itself will not be as severe, and recovery is quicker.


Antimalarial drugs - taken correctly - do significantly reduce the risk of contracting malaria, although they do not prevent the disease a hundred-percent of the time! Hence the necessity of using non-drug measures despite being on chemoprophylaxis. If you are one of the unlucky ones to still contract malaria despite taking antimalarial drugs and suitable non-drug measures, the initial diagnosis of the disease may be more difficult to determine. However, as time goes on, the disease may still progress, until it may indeed become as severe and as dangerous as someone who has not taken any precautions. The advantage in taking antimalarial drugs is that recovery is often quicker when malaria is diagnosed, as the parasite count may be lower than in someone who didn't take these precautions. ALWAYS take all drugs correctly, diligently, and finish the courses as required.

Quote:
Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. Travelers who become ill with a fever or flu-like illness either while traveling in a malaria-risk area or after returning home (for up to 1 year) should seek immediate medical attention and should tell the physician their travel history.


Most people who contract Falciparum malaria (generally the most deadly form of the disease) notice malaria symptoms within a few days to a couple of months after entering a malarial area. Chemoprophylaxis, as discussed above, may delay presentation of these symptoms. However, it is indeed safest to adequately test for malaria up to six months, and even one year, after entering a malarial area and presenting with flu-like and other malaria symptoms. People who are in a malaria-risk area (and especially an all-year-round high-risk area) for extended periods of time (weeks, months, or years) should consult a competent medical professional as to what is the best antimalarial measures to use under these circumstances.


Quote:
For the best protection against malaria, it is important to continue taking your drug as recommended after leaving the malaria-risk area (4 weeks for mefloquine, doxycycline, or chloroquine, 7 days for atovaquone/proguanil or primaquine). Otherwise, you can develop malaria.


Please note that there are only a few places in the world where chloroquine as a preventative antimalarial drug is still recommended, as many places have developed significant chloroquine-resistance; in other words, taking chloroquine will, in all likelihood, have a reduced potential for preventing malaria infection in these places. Because of this, the World Health Organisation and the South African Department of Health do not anymore recommend that chloroquine be used first-line to prevent malaria in malaria-risk areas in Southern Africa, and indeed Africa, and also many other parts of the world. (Again, consult an up-to-date malaria risk-areas map, as well as appropriate preventative information for each area.) Please, therefore, be very wary of using chloroquine as an antimalarial preventative in chloroquine-resistant areas. It has been argued that chloroquine will still provide some protection against acquiring malaria in chloroquine-resistant malarial areas, but there are several other antimalarials that will give significantly better results in this regard, and so are recommended first-line by competent sources. The article above suggests mefloquine, doxycycline, and a proguanil/atovaquone combination, and these are indeed first-line recommended antimalarials in chloroquine-resistant areas like Southern Africa. Always make sure you consult a competent, knowledgeable medical professional for obtaining the antimalarial most suited to your needs because (potential) side-effects, contra-indications, concomitant medical treatment, and other appropriate factors, may mean that you are better off with one of these rather than the others.



Disclaimer: My recommendations here - though based on some experience and some drug, and other, knowledge - are not absolute, and further consultation with suitable health-care professionals is suggested before a final decision is taken on whether to enter a malarial area, what prophylaxis to use, and any general factors and limitations that need to be taken into account. Furthermore, I only advise based on what information is given by the person(s) entering the malarial area, but I have no control on the information given to me, and so such information could possibly be incomplete or misleading. Moreover, people vary subjectively as to how they metabolise, and react to, drugs and other substances, which further accentuates that my suggestions here are only general suggestions, and therefore not to be taken as pertaining to every person alike.

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Re: Malaria risk in August/September

Unread postby onewithnature » Tue Jul 24, 2012 9:31 pm

MNel, Bert has given you an excellent link to a well-discussed malaria thread. There you will find a lot of information.

However, I will, without hesitation, tell you that, if it was my child that I had to make a decision on, there is absolutely no way I would ever risk taking the child into a malaria-risk area!!!

It is generally the rainy season and increase in average ambient temperature that increases the malaria risk in Kruger from what is considered low-risk (usually end of May until end of September) to high-risk the rest of the year. Officially, high-risk begins the beginning of October, but obviously the mosquitoes don't follow human designations and risk may increase a little before or after this. Low-risk for an infant though is still too much risk, in my opinion.

There is no place within Kruger's borders that is officially considered as a "safe" place in terms of malaria risk!! Regardless of what people tell you, malaria-mosquitoes are found throughout Kruger, and the risk of being bitten by one is everywhere. Some people think that drier areas are safer, but there are enough water sources to allow mosquitoes to breed there.

Regardless, a 3-month-old is not well-positioned to handle malaria if he/she contracts it. Some things in this regard to consider are: Firstly, the disease can progress to a serious state, and so death, usually at a more rapid pace than in adults; so prompt diagnosis and rapid and effective treatment is more critical. Remember that most cases of malaria in Southern Africa are from the Falciparum strain, which is the deadliest. Secondly, the child is unable to tell you how she/he is feeling and so the disease may go unnoticed for a while. Thirdly, the child will begin teething around that time, and so if he/she develops a fever, it may be difficult to decide if it is due to teething or from contraction of malaria.

Amongst other things to take into account are: Firstly, temperatures in the Park can rise rapidly during the day even around that time of year, which may make your baby very uncomfortable. Secondly, if your baby takes a suitable antimalarial drug, the child may suffer from debilitating side-effects, which will make her/his, and so your, holiday a nightmare. Thirdly, you may feel that you can adequately protect you baby from dusk until dawn against all mosquito bites, but experience has shown me that it is not an easy thing to do.

The decision will always lie with you, but, if it was me, I would not even consider taking my infant child to Kruger at any time. I only considered taking my daughter when she was five years old. Many may disagree with me, but I weighed up all the arguments and came to that conclusion, with which I have never had any regrets.



Disclaimer: My recommendations here - though based on some experience and some drug, and other, knowledge - are not absolute, and further consultation with suitable health-care professionals is suggested before a final decision is taken on whether to enter a malarial area, what prophylaxis to use, and any general factors and limitations that need to be taken into account. Furthermore, I only advise based on what information is given by the person(s) entering the malarial area, but I have no control on the information given to me, and so such information could possibly be incomplete or misleading. Moreover, people vary subjectively as to how they metabolise, and react to, drugs and other substances, which further accentuates that my suggestions here are only general suggestions, and therefore not to be taken as pertaining to every person alike.
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Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby LizelleB » Tue Aug 07, 2012 1:14 pm

I hope the forumites can provide some advice on the following. How do/can pregnant women, who stay in or close to the park, protect themselves against Malaria?
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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby pops » Tue Aug 07, 2012 1:20 pm

LB May I suggest that you look at the Malaria August/September. The subject is well covered there.

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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby Dotty » Tue Aug 07, 2012 1:23 pm

KUDU's mean Well done and Thank you

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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby Imberbe » Tue Aug 07, 2012 2:24 pm

Never thought I would say this but ... rather do not take the risk ... unless there is no other option. :(
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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby impalalover » Wed Aug 08, 2012 1:33 pm

Hi..Me and My wife went to Kruger when she was pregnant and took below precautions.


Tip 1:- Plan your travel when there are no rains/dry season..preferably in Winter.
Tip 2:- During your stay do not walk around the camp after sun set
Tip 3:- Use mosquito repellents and citronella oil
Tip 4:- Wear clothes that will cover your legs fully
Tip 5:- Do not take any anti malarial pills , it might be dangerous for the baby


Enjoy your stay and take all necessary precautions

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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby Crested Val » Sat Aug 11, 2012 11:25 am

Imberbe wrote:Never thought I would say this but ... rather do not take the risk ... unless there is no other option. :(


I agree with Imberbe. :thumbs_up:

I suppose people who live in Malarial areas have to just be very vigilant, and hope for the best, but if we have a choice, it surley isn't worth the risk.

Since my first visit to Kruger in 1975, I have loved it with all my heart, and we spend as much time there as possible..............but in 1980 when I was expecting our first child, I would never have risked taking a trip there. :big_eyes:

Still, we can all make an informed choice can't we. :thumbs_up:
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Re: Malaria protection while pregnant

Unread postby Meandering Mouse » Sun Aug 12, 2012 5:35 pm

The only time I cancelled a trip was due to pregnancy. What people do who live there, I don't know.
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Re: Is Malaria prevention needed for Lower Sabie and Pkop?

Unread postby mari.viviers » Fri May 23, 2014 1:54 pm

Hi All

I am visiting the Kruger in December. :dance:

My little girl would be 3 years old.What can I use for her to prevent Malaria?
:redface: :think:

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Re: Is Malaria prevention needed for Lower Sabie and Pkop?

Unread postby saraf » Fri May 23, 2014 2:52 pm

First you need to go and speak to your GP. S/he is the only one who really know your daughter's medical history.

The latest medication that has come out, which I know as Malarone, has a paediatric version but your daughter will need to be above a certain weight to take it.

With or without preventative medication there are some "best practices" to follow to prevent being bitten in the first place.

Always cover up when outside between dusk and dawn - long-sleeved shirts, long trousers, and socks.
Spray with mosquito repellent before going outside between dusk and dawn.
Burn mosquito repellent coils in the accommodation.
Turn lights off before opening the outside door.

In addition I spray in the shower area of all accommodation I stay in when I first arrive.

Watch your daughter carefully while you are there and for a couple of months afterwards and if she shows any sign of fever get a malaria test done, telling the GP that you have been in a malarial area.

Most importantly - be vigilant but don't become paranoid and enjoy your trip.
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