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The Game Rangers Association of Africa

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The Game Rangers Association of Africa

Unread post by gmlsmit » Wed Jun 16, 2010 2:46 pm



The Game Rangers Association of Africa (GRAA) was founded in 1970 as a non-racial, non-political organisation. The Game Rangers Association of Africa is a properly constituted association and has been registered as a non-profit organisation and has been granted exemption from taxes on donations.

Although now thirty years old, the Association and with the right support, can soon reach its full potential as a major force in the conservation arena of Africa.

The Game Rangers Association of Africa believes that the continued future existence of Africa’s wilderness and its wildlife is ultimately and irrevocably linked to the expertise, ethics and motivation of those tasked with the “on the ground” protection and management of this priceless asset. This involves inter alia the promotion of and the sustainable utilization of natural resources, ecotourism, community involvement and environmental education.

The Ranger in Africa has many real needs, but without relevant training the Ranger will fail, and Africa’s priceless natural and cultural heritage will be lost forever.

During the Third World Congress of the International Ranger Federation held in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, during September 2000, a Memorandum of African Continental Understanding was signed by all of the African delegates present.

This Protocol acknowledges the Game Rangers Association of Africa as the voice of the Ranger in Africa, and binds the signatories into forming National Associations within their own countries, which Associations will be affiliated to the Game Rangers Association of Africa.

The Game Rangers Association of Africa currently has a membership of over 600 from all over Africa, which is growing steadily, and will grow even more rapidly as National Associations are formed throughout Africa.

Although the majority of members live and work in Southern Africa, members come from all over Africa and can even be found on all continents outside of Africa.

Membership includes well-known international figures of Dr Ian Player of South Africa and Dr Ian Khama of Botswana.


The work of a Game Ranger is the safekeeping of wild game, in the natural communities and native landscapes where these animals have always lived.

This is a custodianship which guards the future genetic diversity inherited from the past. For in these wild places is the testament of the laws of the Earth.

Here is the insurance of the loss of matter essential to life’s survival on this planet. No other motive can displace or alter these.

As an executor of the natural estates, the Game Ranger may not diminish its assets, nor be party to their depletion. There are terms to this duty that are known, and there are those still to be learnt. Within these limits only may he move; since natural law determines them.

To seek their understanding and to act in its light is part of the trust that he accepts.


The Game Rangers Association of Africa commits itself to the preservation, conservation and where possible, restoration of Africa’s bio-diversity and the continued existence of its wilderness.


The Future of conservation in Africa and the preservation of its wilderness lie in the hands of its natural resource managers and field rangers.

The Game Rangers Association of Africa is committed to ensure that those responsible for the future of conservation in Africa are dedicated, motivated, skills-trained, ethical and professional in the execution of their duties.


The objectives of the Association are to: -

Ensure that Game Rangers are adequately trained and equipped to carry out their primary responsibility of maintaining the integrity of wilderness areas, protected areas and other natural areas in which they work;
contribute information and advice to those organisations which train Game Rangers to ensure that their training is appropriate and professional;

Represent present and past Game Rangers and their interests in order to ensure the highest standards and credibility of the profession;
give professional, objective and responsible advice, opinions and information on the game ranging profession;

Facilitate the establishment and maintenance of contact and communication between Game Rangers, past and present, throughout the world and especially in Africa;

Asess, support and promote wildlife conservation management throughout Africa and the rest of the world;

Promote the implementation of appropriate protected area management systems as required by international conventions and agreements, and that their effectiveness be assessed and reported on throughout Africa;
aim to ensure that policy and legislation relating to wilderness areas, protected areas and other natural areas in Africa remain compatible to the values of the GRAA as expressed in the Manifesto, Vision and Mission of the Association;

Affiliate with other organisations which share common goals, ethics and objectives;

Actively promote support for the Association;

Manage the affairs of the Association so as not to carry on any profit making activities not relating to its objectives, or to participate in any business, profession or occupation carried on by its members, or to provide financial assistance, premises, continuous services or facilities to its members for the purpose of carrying on any business, profession or occupation by them;

Ensure that the activities of the Association will be carried on with the sole purpose of promoting its objectives.


Game Rangers are wildlife managers and the field force in Africa, working at the “coal face” of conservation. In Africa the prime responsibility of the Game Ranger is to ensure the territorial integrity of the protected area under his/her management.

Their tasks are multi-faceted and include research and monitoring, game capture and introductions, population management, burning programs, infrastructure and equipment maintenance, public relations, environmental education, community liaison and involvement, financial and human resource planning and administration.

Theirs is often a difficult, dangerous and thankless task for which they receive very little remuneration and recognition and seemingly minuscule support both morally and financially.

For their dedication many have in the past, and no doubt will in future, pay with their lives.



The Southern African Wildlife College (SAWC) was established in 1996 as a project of WWF (SA) after close cooperation with all interested and affected parties in Southern Africa, including government, conservation agencies, and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

The establishment of SAWC was funded by Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) and for the last 10 years the College has been training natural resource managers from national and private protected areas throughout Africa. Recently, the Peace Parks Foundation have taken over the responsibility of SAWC and with their support, the College proudly continues to strive toward capacity building of conservation staff in Africa, with a special focus on the newly emerging trans-frontier conservation areas.

The SAWC is an independent SADC training institution and does not receive a government subsidy and is a registered Non-profit Organization.

The SAWC is a SADC recognised centre of specialization and is fully Accreditation by THETA (Tourism, Hospitality and Sport, Education and Training Authority, Provider Accreditation No 613/P/000001/2004). Furthermore the SAWC is a lead provider for the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) in both Conservation and Tour Guiding for in the Limpopo-Mpumalanga Provinces. It is also a member of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as a national non governmental organization.


To be a regionally recognised centre of excellence in conservation education and training in Africa.


The main objective of the company is to provide people from Africa with the required motivation and relevant skills to manage and conserve their protected areas and associated fauna and flora on a sustainable basis in cooperation with local communities.


To provide and develop high quality, informative and inspiring courses for natural heritage managers and other interested parties.

To strive for recognition as a regional rather than a national institution by working closely with other Southern African training initiatives.

To provide accreditation of training courses that will attain recognition in their own right but will also complement and link into the spectrum of protected area natural resource management training options available in Southern Africa.

Use training as a vehicle for the exchange of ideas, information and expertise in order to promote co-operation between conservation organizations and cultures.

Be a dynamic, flexible and service-orientated organization, which aims to become a role model for socially and environmentally responsible development.

Promote an integrated approach to the management of natural resource and protected areas that is appropriate to Africa, focusing especially on the role of local communities and other stakeholders in the sustainable management of resources.

May the Roar of the African Lion be heard by the Children of our Children’s Children Forever
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 159 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.

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Unread post by gmlsmit » Wed Jun 16, 2010 2:52 pm

Here below is an extract from the Game Rangers Association of Africa.

"We have lived in the best time and seen the wonders of wildlife...and belong to a brotherhood the members of which have memories that cannot be matched..."Sir Alfred Pease.

What is a Game Ranger?

In Africa, the Game Ranger goes by many different titles - Game Ranger, Game Warden, Conservation Officer, and many more, yet all are essentially the wildlife managers and the field force in Africa, working at the "coal face" of conservation. In Africa the prime responsibility of the Game Ranger is to ensure the territorial integrity and safety of the protected area under his/her management. Their tasks are multi-faceted and include; ensuring the day to day health and well-being of the game, research and monitoring, game capture and introductions, population management, burning programs, infrastructure and equipment maintenance, public relations, environmental education, and, crucially, local community relations, liaison and involvement. Added to these are the normal day to day financial controls, human resource planning and administration, which must also be carried out.

Theirs is often a difficult, dangerous and thankless task for which they receive very little remuneration and recognition and seemingly minuscule support both morally and financially.
For their dedication, many have in the past, and no doubt will in future, pay with their lives.

Game Ranging is a field that encompasses many aspects of conservation work and includes, but is not restricted to the following :-

Territorial integrity and law enforcement:

Actively combat potential or actual threats to the area of management.

Natural studies and scientific support:

Study, monitor, record and report on natural occurrences and phenomenon, and field collection of data and samples.

Management planning and implementation:

Planning and carrying out of actions - inclusive of at least the following; erosion and alien plant control, fire management and game population control.

Sustainable resource utilisation:

Promote the value of , and prevent the degradation/destruction of natural resources.

Environmental education:

Contribute towards a public general awareness of conservation.

Community relations:

Contribute towards acceptance by, and cooperation of, neighbouring communities in conservation management.


In Africa, there are pockets of expertise where the professional standard of Rangers is amongst the highest in the world. However, the general level of expertise is steadily diminishing. Unless halted, this will result in a conservation catastrophe for the continent.
The past twenty years have seen vast natural areas in Africa destroyed and denuded of viable wildlife populations.

Illegal Coltan mining in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park and the Okapi Wildlife Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has resulted in rare lowland gorillas and chimpanzees being slaughtered and eaten. The gorilla population alone has been reduced from an estimated 8000 to around 1000 in less than three years.

In 1975, Rwanda's Virunga National Park boasted the world's largest concentration of hippos - an estimated 35,000. By1998 this had fallen to 2000 and today there are no longer even reliable statistics available. Excluding those killed during the civil war, around 80 game rangers have been murdered in the DRC whilst on patrol.

Zambia openly admits that poachers rule its largest game reserve, the 22,400 sq. km Kafue National Park, due to a chronic shortage of game rangers. Conservationists say that at least 2000 are needed to professionally manage a park of that size. In fact there are less than 500 with inadequate equipment and facilities. The rhino population has already succumbed to the poacher's gun and the insatiable demands of oriental medicine and the bush meat trade flourishes unchecked in a rapidly declining animal population.

Zambian Tourist Ministry spokesman, Gabriel Tembo said," Kafue has been hit so heavily by poachers that if something is not done soon we might end up with a national park and no animals."

Many species, such as black rhino, have been reduced to the verge of extinction. The sad fact is that at the dawn of the 21st century, in a morass of conflicting interests, political instability and indifference, Africa's irreplaceable wildlife resource is in crisis with habitat and species destruction taking place at unprecedented levels throughout the continent.

Reasons for this are complex, but do include insufficient funding, inadequate training, lack of equipment, ineffective leadership, lack of motivation, corruption and political interference.

It is clear that a balanced and viable future for the continent's unique wildlife heritage, and its desperately needed eco-tourist revenues, depends heavily on the training and development of a trustworthy and properly motivated corps of professional Rangers.

Eco-tourism, perhaps potentially Africa's greatest industry, is becoming increasingly important to local and national economies but this trade is relying on a continuously diminishing asset.

The underestimated and all too often misunderstood contribution of the Game Ranger or Game Warden is pivotal in the struggle to save Africa's remaining wildlife. However too many are being marginalised or even killed.

Furthermore, a chronic shortage of responsibly targeted funds combined with an absence of support and encouragement contributes towards a severe diminution of the Game Ranger's effectiveness on the ground.

The most important remaining asset that conservation in Africa has is the existing reservoir of knowledge and expertise in wildlife management still possessed by many Rangers throughout the continent. The question is how to best use this expertise to the greatest advantage of conservation areas, local communities and fellow rangers.

The Future

Africa is unique. The natural assets of the continent surely cannot be equaled anywhere else on earth. Much of what has been destroyed can be rehabilitated, given adequate expertise and the will to do so. The expertise is in Africa but the funds are not.

Conservation bodies are receiving less and less funding every year. If we are to save these last remnants of our heritage in Africa, we will undoubtedly need the backing and financial assistance of First World governments and the private sector.

The Game Rangers Association of Africa is confident that it has the credibility and the expertise to address many of the existing and future problems that conservation in Africa is expecting to face in the next millennium. These include such important specifics as management training, equipment and motivation.

The GRAA can make a solid and positive contribution to socio-economic upliftment in the region, as well as to the long-term conservation of areas of international importance.

It is important that people realise that the Game Rangers are the work force for conservation in Africa.

The Rangers work at the "coal face" and without the Ranger ALL other conservation efforts, some of which cost many millions of dollars, will fail.

Just one small example is the $30 million, which has been raised to move 1000 elephants into the Mozambique side of the GKG Transfrontier Park, but without trained Game Rangers in place in Mozambique these elephants will be poached and killed and all that money and effort will mean nothing.
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 159 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.

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Unread post by gmlsmit » Wed Jun 16, 2010 2:56 pm


The Game Rangers Association of Africa (GRAA) and the South African Wildlife College (SAWC) held talks on the 17 November 2006 to develop a partnership to offer Field Ranger training at the College.

A number of principles on the provision of equipment and operating procedures were agreed to have also been included in a formal Agreement between the GRAA and SAWC.

The most important decisions taken were:

A tented training facility consisting of ten safari tents and other basic equipment supplied by the GRAA to the value of R200 000.00 will be erected by the SAWC on site at the SAWC.

The SAWC will be the GRAA’s preferred training provider making available course accreditation and assessment together with all other infrastructure on site at the SAWC at rates that will be determined by agreement.

The SAWC will manage the tented training facility on behalf of the GRAA and utilise the facility when not being used by GRAA to the benefit of both parties.

SAWC will levy a management fee for the up-keep of the facility inclusive of insurance, payable by GRAA monthly.

WWF South Africa will provide the funds to build this facility to the amount of R178 000.00.

Income generated from SAWC use of the tented facility will be calculated on a 50/50 principle for accommodation used.

Initially there will be five courses will be offered annually for 20 Learners per course totalling 100 participants per year. Of this number at least 25% of the places on each course will be offered to unemployed persons to prepare them to apply for field ranger positions in formal nature conservation authorities or private wildlife / game reserves, provided that sponsorship of such trainees is available.


The SAWC is situated in a natural Lowveld environment having access to conservation training areas both on site and in close proximity to the site that is situated in a Contractual SANPark. The College gate is located 10km west of the Orpen Gate to the Kruger National Park; the College itself is 2km north on a good gravel road.


The facility will consist of ten Safari Tents on concrete slabs with a veranda and will be basically equipped with three beds, steel cupboards and chairs per tent. Although it is envisaged to build en suite bathrooms at a later stage, a communal ablution facility will be available.



Administrative costs

Administration & communication (Telephone, fax, email, internet, stationary, photocopies) R 3,500.00

Room and equipment rentals @ R450.00 pd (lecture room, audio visual equipment, training equipment, access to training area) R 13,500.00

Staff costs @ R240.00 pd (dedicated staff member to coordinate training arrangements during the course) R 7,200.00

Living Expenses for participants and trainers
Food (3 meals a day for 20 participants & 2 facilitators for 35 days @ R75 per day) R 57,750.00

Housing (on-site 20 students and 2 facilitators @ R60 per person per night) R 46,200.00

Travel Expenses for participants and trainers
Road travel (Trainers transport costs, student field trips) R 9,000.00


Manuals @ R150.00 per manual R 3,000.00

Training consumables (Ammunition, camping supplies, clothing and footwear) R 16,500.00

Other Expenses

Trainer fees @ R1750.00 pd R 52,500.00

Total course cost (assuming 20 learners) Excl VAT R 209,150.00

As a registered non profit organizations GRAA & SAWC are VAT exempt on training activities

Cost per learner R 10,457.50

Cost per learner per day R 298.79

Cost of five courses R 1,045,750.00

The current R299.00 per Learner per Day totalling R10 457.50 (rounded off at R10 500.00) is an all inclusive course-fee per participant. The GRAA is seeking donor funding for bursaries for a number of places on each of the courses totalling R1,050,000.00.


Donors will be assisting young people in their training needs to commence a career in nature conservation in the formal and private sector.

The bursaries will also assisting the potential employers in filling vacancies with trained people so that the valuable natural and wildlife assets in the protected areas are effectively conserved.

Potential donors can:

Fund the total project, or
Per course, or
Part of a course, or
Single persons can also be sponsored.


This course is a skills program of the following of the National Certificate in Conservation Resource Guardianship:

Skills program title: Field Ranger (Unarmed) Registration No: CSV/FldRng/2/0043 (NQF level 2).


A learner who has achieved this qualification will be able to perform a multiple set of roles in assisting with the maintenance of the integrity of a conserved area, by integrating operational knowledge and skills.


On achieving this qualification the learner will be able to:

Demonstrate an understanding of nature conservation issues and conduct activities in an environmentally sensitive manner.

Carry out designated conservation security practices according to a plan, e.g. conduct routine security patrols in order to deter, detect and combat illegal activities within an area of responsibility.

Gather and report accurately on local and keystone wildlife species information to be used for population management purposes.

Demonstrate in their behaviour and lifestyle, a set of values and ethics centring on respect for self, others and the environment.

Demonstrate an understanding of HIV/AIDS and its implications.
Implement sound occupational health and safety practices in the workplace according to a plan.

Use firearms competently*

* The course does not include the cost of the SASSETA rifle handling unit standards which is the legal requirement for learners to be able to handle firearms.

This is 5 days training at an extra cost of around R2,000.00 per learner.

During the course air rifles will be used to simulate rifle handling procedures.

Some of the Learners who have excelled themselves will be invited to complete Module II as part of a later phase of training


The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has recognised that travel and tourism are important economic drivers of the 21st century.

In September 1999, the South African Government launched a R180 million Tourism Action Plan as a blueprint for international marketing of South Africa. Foreign tourist numbers are growing by some 10% per annum. The tourism economy is based almost exclusively on eco-tourism, Africa’s natural wonders.

The burgeoning eco-tourism industry is the greatest job creator in Africa (8 jobs created with every one tourist bed filled) and provides massive economic development. All of this would be of no value without those well trained and equipped Rangers in the field, protecting the integrity of their areas and its wildlife for the tourist to enjoy.
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 159 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.

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Unread post by gmlsmit » Wed Jun 16, 2010 2:59 pm


Time to put theory into practice

By Krissie Clark, Wayne Lotter & Jan Phelan

Many of us have worked in and visited numerous parks in Africa, and most of these times are associated with glorious and wonderful memories of these amazing reserves. And I am also sure there are many of us who have had these wonderful memories shattered, when a recent visit to a particular park or news on a park suggests that everything is in a state of disarray, with buildings and roads neglected, vegetation hammered from the heavy pressure of game, off road driving and wood collection or totally infested with invasive plants and the wildlife is being poached left, right and centre. Similarly, many of us know of protected areas that are just really parks on maps and that exist in the legislation (‘paper parks’), but offer little real protection. In reality, except for the 3 game scouts who sit under a tree all day with little ammunition, unserviceable rifles, and who poach the very wildlife they are supposed to be protecting, it would be difficult to guess that it was a game park or nature reserve. All this, while their manager spends most of his time attending meetings and busying himself with non essential issues, usually outside of the park. But who can blame them, when they have not been equipped or trained appropriately or managed consistently and according to clear achievable objectives? This is unfortunately the sad reality of many of Africa’s protected areas, which are under threat and exposed to mismanagement and degradation. It is thus no wonder that there has been an urgent call to find ways of ensuring effective management of protected areas.

Currently the management of protected areas largely depends on the quality and drive of its management staff and the resources available to them, but what protected areas really need is some structured system that will work towards set objectives and targets. A system that will identify risks within each protected area and set objectives to address these risks, address conservation concerns, clearly define roles and responsibilities, determine and promote best practices, reduce liabilities, identify gaps, help ensure legal compliance and provide a framework which will allow for regular monitoring and continual improvement. A system that would achieve and maintain effective management, regardless of the quality of its managers.

The goods news is that GRAA has developed an excellent tool that can do all of the above and it can even be used as a tool to actually implement those complicated Integrated Management/Development Plans that become the burden of many managers. This wonderfully useful and practical tool is known as PAMS, which is the acronym for a Protected Area Management System.

For several years PAMS existed in theory, while it gained support and endorsement from senior representatives of organizations such as the IUCN South Africa, DEAT, WESSA and EWT. At the same time it was promoted and well received in publications and presentations at various workshops and symposiums. In 2007, the time came when theory was put into practice. Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife (EKZNW) agreed to implement PAMS in its Invasive Alien Species Programme with the idea that should it prove successful, it could be further expanded into other functions across the organization. With just over a year having gone by since its approval within EKZNW, it can now be said that with the implementation of PAMS, the Invasive Alien Species Programme is now outcomes focused, well co-ordinated, well implemented and making the best use of tax-payers money in order to ensure effective, efficient and transparent management of invasive alien species within EKZNW protected areas. The use of PAMS in this way showed that the system is very easily adapted, and in fact is ideally suited for conservation programmes of this nature (alien plant control programmes, wetland rehabilitation programmes, land-care initiatives, etc) and not only for the management of protected areas. PAMS could thus also be accurately referred to as a ‘Programmatic Audited Management System’.

Further good news is that 2008 will bring about the adoption of PAMS into the Selous-Niassa Wildlife Protection Corridor Project, which is an international conservation project linking the Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania with the Niassa Game Reserve in Mozambique. Negotiations are also currently underway for the adoption of PAMS into another major Transfrontier Conservation Area initiative in Africa.

So, you are probably wondering what PAMS actually is, and what makes it so unique and effective. PAMS is based largely on the ISO14001 EMS approach and includes the same basic components, but contains some different emphases and specific requirements unique to conservation. In short, it contains essentially the same basic key components as does ISO14001, such as Planning, Implementation and Operation, Checking and Corrective Action and Management Review. Under each of these components there is a list of criteria that needs to be met or put in place. Thus by simply having all these criteria in place, it creates a management system that identifies risks and sets objectives to address the significant risks. It assists to clearly define roles and responsibilities, addresses conservation concerns, determines and promotes best practices, ensures competency at different levels, reduces liabilities, identifies gaps and ensures the measurement of implementation and outcomes of management actions through auditing and evaluation. Cumulatively, they provide the framework that drives continual improvement and ensures effective management.

Those of you who are familiar with ISO 14001 may be thinking, how does PAMS actually differ from ISO14001? Well, ISO was essentially developed for industries and thus ISO 14001 and its auditors have a very ‘brown’ environmental focus, and concern themselves with issues relating to energy consumption, waste management, oil & chemical spills, etc. ISO monitors things such as production inputs and outputs, and overall often results in a huge paper trail which arguably doesn’t always add as much value as it does workload. ISO is also inflexible in the sense that some requirements have to be met because of rigid global standards which demand mandatory conformance, regardless of their significance in the specific situation. Most importantly, ISO places little emphasis and provides little guidance on some biodiversity conservation issues. Conversely, PAMS is more simple, basic and its primary emphasis is on conservation issues. For example, issues such as veld condition, burning regimes, invasive alien species, erosion, and red data species need to be addressed and monitoring requirements again focus more on ‘green’ issues such as vegetation & animal monitoring, collection of weather data, Thresholds of Potential Concern/ Limits of Acceptable Change. Similarly, with issues relating to emergency preparedness, ISO 14001 focuses on issues like big spills and emissions while PAMS looks more at emergencies like uncontrollable veld fires, floods, erosion, the presence of highly invasive alien species and disease outbreaks. PAMS is flexible, and can cater for specific requirements, for example if something can be shown to not add real value it can be motivated and ‘exempted’ from the system in a given situation. PAMS can be simplified to suit the scale and capacity of individual organisations. So, as you can see, ISO 14001 was developed primarily with the concept for implementation in essentially transformed environments by people with a strong focus on ‘brown’ environmental experience and expertise (many of whom are from Europe and other developed countries), whereas PAMS was developed for ‘greenies’ in Africa by ‘greenies’ from Africa with many years of conservation and environmental experience.

So, where to from here? The medium to long term goals are to implement PAMS in numerous African protected areas and conservation programmes and thus we are actively seeking new areas and/or projects in which to implement the system. We have also discussed the establishment of a Protected Area Stewardship (PAS) Council, and have obtained in principle approval of this proposal from some of the leading conservation agencies in southern Africa, through which conservation authorities can attain certification of their protected areas. Thus, although the main objective of PAMS is to act as a tool to help and ensure effective management, the option of certification could also be obtained at a later stage. If required, this could include 3rd party certification of outsourced tourism and/or hunting agents against the relevant PAS standards.
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 159 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.

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