Skip to content

SANParks.org Forums

View unanswered posts | View active topics






Post new topic Reply to topic  Page 2 of 27
 [ 391 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... 27  Next
Author Message
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2009 6:59 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 9:37 pm
Posts: 7460
Location: Daar waar die bobbejane hul borshare kam
Katja Voth wrote:
They have over forty thousand individual muscles :lol:


A warm welcome to Jaap and the Guides of Selous...

Oscar, a bit more information on this topic...

* In human terms the trunk represents the nose and upper lip with the two nostrils running through its full length
* Elephants use their trunks to rub an itchy eye or scratch its ear. Trunks are also used to threaten, and to throw objects
* An elephant drinks by filling its trunk with water and then pouring the water into its mouth
* Elephants can use their trunks as a snorkel when swimming in water
* The trunk is an exploratory organ in which much of what the elephant experiences comes from the trunk.

Probably one of the most interesting morphological features of the elephant is its trunk. The trunk is an extremely flexible muscular organ which can be used with the finest touch. It is an important part of an elephant's life by being used as an exploratory organ, for feeding, for drinking and for friendly wrestling matches.

At the first hint of danger, and elephant will raise its trunk to smell any reason for the threat. It is also used for a whole range of smelling tasks as one of the elephant's primary sensory inputs (along with hearing). Whether it is to smell to see if a female is sexually receptive, or to explore the food in another elephant's mouth, the trunk plays a vital part in its life. In fact, it is almost impossible for an elephant to survive if its trunk becomes damaged.

Although most mammals use the nose solely for air intake, elephants use its trunk for water storage, and for sucking up mud and dust to clean or cool off. A typical elephant on average can hold about 4 litres of water. The skin covering the front side is annulated with deep crevasses and has a sparse covering of fine sensory hairs.

An African elephant has two fingers on the tip of its trunk that is uses to grab objects with. The Asian elephant only has one finger and typically only uses the trunk to scoop objects up with.

An elephant calf can lift about 4.5% of its own weight with its trunk. Or, in the case of an elephant bull it ranges around 270kg.

Please keep in mind that all elephants are individuals, and each has differing capacities from a strength perspective.

Baron Cuvier, a great French naturalist, estimated that the trunk contained 40,000 muscles!! Amazingly, the entire human body only has 639 muscles. However, it is important to know that the elephants trunk actually only has 6 major muscle groups (not commonly known), which are subdivided into over 100,000 muscle units. So, Curvier's original estimate, although off by a bit, was correct when taking into account the groups of different muscles. These muscles are divided into two distinct sets of pairs. (Elephants by Clive Spinage P. 55, 1994)

A trunk is not typically for fighting apart from being involved in threatening gestures. Also, as noted above and elephant will use its trunk when play fighting with another friend. This typically involves pretty involved wrestling matches that can quite quite interesting.

Generally speaking, if an elephant is charging with its trunk stretched outwards then it is bluffing. But, if its trunk is tucked down then it means business.

As well, an elephant tests different smells with its trunk by placing the tip inside its mouth after touching an object. This transfers the smell to a small opening in the palate which leads to the Jacobson's organ (an accessory organ of smell found in all vertebrates).

The trunk is an elephant's most sensitive body part, and this is why when in captivity a person focuses on their trunk when beating them; when elephants are being punished or trained they are hit, poked and potentially beaten on the trunk as it causes the most pain to the individual.

http://elephant.elehost.com/About_Eleph ... trunk.html"

_________________
“Life is too short to wake up with regrets. So love the people who treat you right. Forget about those who don’t.” - Harvey MacKay


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2009 5:46 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Thu Sep 10, 2009 6:35 am
Posts: 128
Location: Selous Game Reserve - Tanzania
Hi Micetta and Siobain,

I hope you are fine. I am fine too.
Thank you for your answers, we have seen them and sat down all guides of Selous so we have appreciated them.
We have gained a lot of knowledge about crocodiles conserning speed.

But because I want to gain more about crocodiles, I would like to ask another question about them.

Here in Selous we have the Rufiji river, which is the largest river in Eastern Africa where we offer boat safaris. So these question I have been asked by the wageni (guests in KiSwahili).

Sept-13:
What are the differences between female and male crocodiles?
(Physical appearance)


Asante for your help/ thank you for your help

Furahini
Guides of Selous


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2009 6:10 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Thu Sep 10, 2009 6:35 am
Posts: 128
Location: Selous Game Reserve - Tanzania
Hello Katja Voth and Elzet,

How are you doing? Hope you are fine. I am fine too.

Thank you for your answers which is so meaning to me and providing me with a lot of knowledge. I really appreciate it thank you.
Would you please allow me to come with a next question?

Aug-6:
What is the reason behind for carnivores to look smaller than herbivores?

Aug-12:
How can they (carnivores) bring down so large animals while they are small?

I got this questions from my pamflets when I was at school, but I did not got and answer. I hope you can help me.

Asante sana / thank you very much

Oscar
Guides of Selous


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2009 8:42 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 9:37 pm
Posts: 7460
Location: Daar waar die bobbejane hul borshare kam
Dear Furahini

I am going to try and answer your question first:

* Male and female crocodilians can be hard to tell apart visually.
* Usually, the best indication is size - males grow larger than females in all crocodilian species, and so a very large individual is more likely to be a male.
* In some species, females may have narrower snouts, and a more slender body, but such traits are highly unreliable indicators of sex.
* In larger crocodilians, the shape of the vent can provide a guide to the animal's sex. Females tend to have smaller, narrower and flatter vents whereas males have larger, wider, and more convex vents. This difference is due to the increased elasticity of the vent in males necessary to allow eversion of the penis during copulation. However, the differences visible in these pictures are rarely so clear-cut. There's only one realistic way to be 100% certain - looking inside the vent/cloaca.

I suggest you visit http://www.crocodilian.com/crocfaq/faq-8.html for pics and more detail.

Happy information hunting! :thumbs_up:

_________________
“Life is too short to wake up with regrets. So love the people who treat you right. Forget about those who don’t.” - Harvey MacKay


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Elzet split guides of selous - 2
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 14, 2009 9:23 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 9:37 pm
Posts: 7460
Location: Daar waar die bobbejane hul borshare kam
Dear Oscar

I am going to try and answer your question. I hope I interpret it correctly. (PS. I have 'friends' on the Forum that are very well informed. Such as Imberbe and Bishop3006, to name but a few. I am sure that they will be able to add).

I am trying to answer both your questions simultaneously.

From my research it seems that the hunting style prescribes the size of the predator - the size of the predator is the key element of success in the hunting process.

The smaller predators are the most successful carnivores.

http://www.south-african-game-reserves. ... dators.htm

Size-selective predation involves predators preferring prey of a certain size. Large prey may prove troublesome for a predator, while small prey might prove hard to find and in any case provide less of a reward. This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey. Size may also act as a refuge for large prey, for example adult elephants are generally safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable.

_________________
“Life is too short to wake up with regrets. So love the people who treat you right. Forget about those who don’t.” - Harvey MacKay


Last edited by Imberbe on Tue Sep 15, 2009 3:33 pm, edited 2 times in total.
Post shortened - rule 6 of this thread.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 1:15 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 29, 2008 2:02 am
Posts: 3633
Location: Perth, Western Australia
HuJambo Furahini and other guides, Habari Yako?

Quote:
What are the differences between female and male crocodiles?
(Physical appearance)


It's and excellent question and a very tough one to answer. Elzet has provided great information, with size probably being the best indicator from a boat - but be wary that this can be deceiving if you only have one crocodile to compare :wink:

A behavourial indicator would be that the female crocodile may be found near nests during breeding whereas the males would not.

I spoke to a zoo keeper friend here in Perth and they have trouble telling the difference between male / female and these reptiles are in a tank!!

He suggested that you say to the wageni that they have swim with the crocodile and check out the genitalia :lol: :whistle: - sorry, just kidding.

Kwaheri
Timepilot

_________________
“ Every year elephants were becoming scarcer and wilder south of the Zambezi, so that it had become impossible to make a living by hunting at all. ” FC Selous 1881


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 3:23 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 29, 2008 2:02 am
Posts: 3633
Location: Perth, Western Australia
HuJambo Oscar and colleagues

Quote:
What is the reason behind for carnivores to look smaller than herbivores?


Interesting question guys and I'm going to take a flier here (Jaap - please translate :wink: ) Bear in mind that this question appears significant even back to the dinosaurs - herbivorous dinosaurs were much larger than the carnivores. And, in fact, the relationship remains the the same in body size even where herbivores may be smaller - the carnivores tend to be proportionally smaller.

I think this may partly have to do with diet. Herbivores process a lot more food than carnivores more often and off "worse" quality. To process vegetable matter requires significantly larger intestines to get the most out of the food meaning that a larger body cavity is required. Carnivores have much smaller intestines to prevent meat rotting and causing problems and thus require smaller body cavities. As I said a partial answer.

May also have to do with physiology - ie. smaller body = fast, bigger body equals slower, therefore carnivores can catch herbivores.

Sorry about the imperfect answer :redface:

Quote:
How can they (carnivores) bring down so large animals while they are small?


This has to do with the fact that carnivores have the tools available to them to kill a larger animals and also work in packs to outnumber the larger animals.

Carnivores are equipped with lithe, muscular bodies, sharp teeth and claws which can all be used against the larger animals. There is also pack hunting against the larger animals where many are against one therefore overcoming size differences. Where animals hunt solitary their prey tend to be smaller.

Again - an imperfect answer but I think it hits the pertinent points.

Kwaheri
Timepilot.

_________________
“ Every year elephants were becoming scarcer and wilder south of the Zambezi, so that it had become impossible to make a living by hunting at all. ” FC Selous 1881


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 8:25 am 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Thu Nov 06, 2008 4:45 pm
Posts: 5598
Location: Pretoria
Oscar, and other guides.

Firstly, welcome here. It is great to see you here, especially when you bring such interesting questions where we can all learn, not just you.

In terms of the predator size, I think TimePilot has covered most of it.

Another thing to consider is that larger body equals more food required. Just think of the massive volumes that an elephant must consume. On the one hand it is because of the vegetable matter as TP said, but on the other hand it is simply to provide enough nutrition to support the bulk of the animal.

Thus, if predators were larger, it would also mean that they require more food in order to maintain the larger bodies. Thus, apart from being smaller making them more agile, it also means less food required.

The agility is alo important. And injury. A larger body would injure easier, because of the weight involved, than a smaller, lither body.

In terms of prey size, as TP said, a solitary predator will hunt smaller prey - even lion. When lions for example want to take on large animals, especially when the prey is also dangerous such as buffalo, they don't do so alone, but only in numbers.

The prey animals, apart from being able to kick and strike with their horns where applicable, don't have any defense mechanism, whereas the the predator has a number of offensive tools, so to speak, in the teeth, and the claws, supported by a strong, muscular body.

Hope this little bit helps.

_________________
Marius
Hunter, nature lover, conservationist.

I believe that for man to survive, we must work with nature rather than against her. We need the land; the land doesn't need us. Too many people have lost sight of this fact. - Bruce Truter


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 6:23 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Thu Sep 10, 2009 6:35 am
Posts: 128
Location: Selous Game Reserve - Tanzania
mambo to everyone,

I am Whiteman. I have been working in this camp for 1,5 years as a guide. I have been taking my course of guides at AIBM Training College at Dar es Salaam. The course was one year in the class and 3 months in the field.

I appreciate the feedback of our questions.
On behalf of all guides i want to thank you all for answering the question about baobabs.

I have another question which I would like to ask you.

Sept-10:
Is there any specific reason for a male kudu to do soil horning?

I have been out on a couple of game drives and have seen it a few times. It has always been a male kudu. It was always close to the waterhole/water area.
So I was thinking why do they do this?

Asante sana,
Whiteman


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 6:39 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Fri Jul 24, 2009 9:51 am
Posts: 18312
Location: Germany, busy planning next trip
Hello Whiteman and all the others,

During the mating season prime bulls develop massive neck muscles, thrash bushes with their horns and dig up soil to display their dominance to females. Fights are rare and involve lunging, horn clashing, and wrestling with locked horns. Deaths occur from stab wounds and when horns become interlocked.

Hope I could help a little bit as I'm definately not an expert.

_________________
Katja

____________
Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I’m not sure about the former. Einstein

Kamadejo returns to KNP after 7 years
Balm for the Soul


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 8:09 pm 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Wed Aug 31, 2005 12:28 am
Posts: 14267
Location: Pretoria, RSA
Hi Whiteman!

Horning is a behaviour that has been seen in hartebeest, wildebeest and tsessebe. It is not that well documented in kudu, so it is interesting that you have seen it there ... maybe you are helping us to grow our knowledge!

There is different ideas about the exact reason for this. And maybe there is more than one reason for them doing it.

It is thought to be a showing-off action, aimed at intimidating rivals and impressing females. It is also thought that horns caked in mud are more intimidating to enemies, since it looks fierce. It is noted that muddy areas are often used, perhaps confirming this idea.

Some horning activity may be linked to the glands many antelope have in front of their eyes. Rubbing their faces against bushes and rock will transfer the smell, proclaiming their presence. This is valuable in species that are territorial.

Females have also been seen doing it, but not to the same extent as males.

_________________
Imberbe = Combretum imberbe = Leadwood = Hardekool = The spirit of the Wildernis!

Want to know more about the SANParks Honorary Rangers? Visit www.sanparkshr.org


One positive deed is worth more than a thousand critical words.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 8:25 pm 
Offline
Virtual Ranger
Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Wed Feb 25, 2009 9:38 pm
Posts: 5208
Location: Johannesburg
Hi Whiteman and all the other guides, it really is wonderful to talk to you all. :D

This is once again a very good question, and I think Imberbe
and katja have explained it well.


Just something that made me smile, Bennievis another member on this
forum posted this elsewhere on the forum. Perhaps this kudu was trying
to look intimidating.
:lol:

Bennievis wrote:
We saw this Kudu between Olifants and Letaba (Near von Wielliechs baobab) in December. He left his 'hat' on. A mud cake, complete with grass, stuck between his horns. He was trying his best to get it off by rubbing against the branches. I wonder what happened and if it eventually dried? What was he thinking??
Image

Image
Photos courtesy of my son (15yrs)

_________________
He is rich or poor according to what he is, not according to what he has. ~Henry Ward Beecher


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 15, 2009 9:17 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Mar 08, 2009 9:37 pm
Posts: 7460
Location: Daar waar die bobbejane hul borshare kam
Hallo Shikamoo mzee! Whiteman, Mzee Haule, Bernard, Fanuel, Furahini, Oscar, Diamon and Erick...

It is still amazing to have you around on this Forum. It seems that I have flooded you with information. :redface: I shall try to exercise more restrain in future. :thumbs_up:

It seems that kudus digging in soil with their horns were discussed on the Forum during 2005 and since reference has been made here and there to this behavior.

Krokodile wrote:
I also saw Kudu doing the "ground-horning" thing. This photo was taken at Maloutswa Hide in Mapungubwe. The mud was quite thin and dropped straight off so I don't think that it was to make the horns look bigger.

Image


It seems that some people tend to believe that kudus use soil and mud to remove the shine from their horns so that predators do not spot them that easily. :lol:

However, someone else mentioned that another option is that the skin of a kudu's cheek and ear is apparently quite oily and as such attracts flies, and thus kudus soil-dig to get mud/soil on their heads as part of parasite control.

I trust that you are gaining from the exchanges with my learned colleagues on the Forum.

Baadaye!

_________________
“Life is too short to wake up with regrets. So love the people who treat you right. Forget about those who don’t.” - Harvey MacKay


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 22, 2009 11:55 am 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Thu Sep 10, 2009 6:35 am
Posts: 128
Location: Selous Game Reserve - Tanzania
jambo Forumites,
here is Furahini one of the Guides of selous.
I would like to present my question to you for help.

a question is,

Sept. 20
I heard that a female Pray-mantis kills a male after mating.
quez no 1.
Is it true?
quez no 2.
Why do they do that?


thanks a lot.
best regards,
Furahini, Guides of selous


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Guides of Selous
Unread postPosted: Tue Sep 22, 2009 1:06 pm 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Wed Aug 31, 2005 12:28 am
Posts: 14267
Location: Pretoria, RSA
Hi Furahini! :thumbs_up:

Yes, it is true!

It often happens, but not always! Some males do survive this encounter. In fact, she kills him and eats him while they are mating! But even when it happens, it will not stop the mating process, since the male's nerve system allows him to complete the mating process.

The reason for this is not 100% clear, but there seems to be good reason. Firstly we must remember that they are predatory insects and are not social. It is in their nature to kill.

Secondly, there is some sense in this. The female has to provide her young with a good start for them to have the best possible chance of survival in a hard and dangerous world. The more nutrients (food) she can provide inside of the egg, the better start the young have.

By eating the male, she has lots of food available, which she can transfer in to the eggs. So, in effect, the male is giving his life to give his young the best possible start.

The times the male do not get eaten, is possibly the times where she has already eaten enough?

_________________
Imberbe = Combretum imberbe = Leadwood = Hardekool = The spirit of the Wildernis!

Want to know more about the SANParks Honorary Rangers? Visit www.sanparkshr.org


One positive deed is worth more than a thousand critical words.


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 391 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... 27  Next



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group

Webcams Highlights

Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Submitted by Anonymous at 22:46:43 Submitted by Foxy at 21:41:56 Submitted by fenman5 at 19:28:08 Submitted by RonelMentz at 21:02:30