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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 10, 2011 7:53 am 
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Virtual Ranger
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Well done to everyone who took part :thumbs_up: :clap: Here are the results for Round 1


Jungle junkie +26
Toko +27
ecojunkie +27
Nungu +20
Klipsprringer +25
Koedoe +10 ( Very well done considering you had access to no extra resources :clap: :clap: )
Pantera leo +19

I Will edit the questions with the answers I was looking for and Round 2 will be up sometime today. :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 10, 2011 11:44 am 
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Thanks Ods...looking forward to round 2.

The one that I didn't get was the dung diggers.... but what I did find during my research was that in South America there are owls that dig in dung middens for beetles :shock: Obviously no rhino in South America - so I left that one out... learned something new about almost every question asked. :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 10, 2011 12:05 pm 
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Interesting Nungu! :thumbs_up: Never heard of that before now.
Jungle Junkie wrote:
Thanks Oddesy :clap:

Gee, everyone did so well :D - Congrats to all of you... :clap: :clap:

:thumbs_up: , That's because you are such an intelligent bunch! :clap:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Tue Jan 11, 2011 8:14 am 
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koedoe wrote:
Odds, I just wonder how did you score my answers to get to 10 points. Pleez I don't want to start something, just wondering!

[ Post made via Mobile Device ] Image

No problem :D

You got +5 points for question 1, 2 and 5. Then I gave you one for the bonus question (5x3+1=16) and then you got two questions wrong so -6 gives you the 10. :thumbs_up: Im sure you will catch up on this round :wink:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Tue Jan 11, 2011 9:04 am 
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January: Round 2

Bonus Question: (worth up to 5 points)
Why do herbivores form groups ?(herds etc), think about the advantages and disadvantages.

1:
Animals are territorial due to some perceived benefit to the fitness of that animal, whether it is access to mates (reproductive fitness) or high quality resources (survival fitness). Whether to be territorial or not involves the animal weighing up the costs and benefits (instinctively). If they defend a territory they may have access to mates or high quality food but they then face the costs of a decreased amount of time that they can spend feeding as well as there being the risk of injury. Knowing this now imagine a scenario where there exists high quality and highly concentrated resources (hot spots), such as fruiting trees and carcass, what is the best strategy for the animal to maximise benefits for itself? (think of scavengers, birds or primates).

2: There are two main types of digestive physiology, ruminants and hind gut fermenters (non-ruminants). A ruminant would be like a buffalo or waterbuck for example and non-ruminants are animals like rhino, elephant and zebra. In the dry season the quality of the food declines (less nutrients and sugar and an increase in fibre) how will these two different groups respond in terms of their feeding behaviour (how long) and intake (how much)?

3: What two main purposes does a snakes venom serve?

4:Crocodiles have what is known as temperature sex determination (TSD). At what temperature would you expect females or males to be born?

5:
What is a sodic site and why are they important?

enjoy :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Wed Jan 12, 2011 8:51 am 
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Answers Submitted so far for round 2:

Nungu
Bishop3006

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Wed Jan 12, 2011 4:25 pm 
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After looking at my questions for this round I realise that there is for some of them no simple right or wrong answer especially with long questions. There may be a part of your answer that deserves merit and so I am going to add a new rule.

If part of the answer is correct, but not exactly what I am looking for then you can still score, 2/3/4 out of 5 without receiving negative points. If the answer is completely wrong then the negative 3 points will still apply :thumbs_up:

Any more answers for round 2? :D

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Wed Jan 12, 2011 10:22 pm 
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bishop3006 wrote:
That's after I wrote him a number of essays! :mrgreen: :twisted:

:lol: :lol: (I like the reading :twisted: )
I may be the one asking the questions but I really learn too, It is always interesting to get someone elses viewpoint :dance:
ecojunkie wrote:
I will send in answers.....just a few busy days for this week to get past first.


No problem EJ, I will leave it open till saturday morning to give everyone who wants to play a chance :thumbs_up:
Jungle Junkie wrote:
A long and very busy day today Odds (or McGyver from the HELP! topic :shock: ) which finally ended with me chasing a mouse around to get it out of my lounge - it was making itself very comfy under the cushions of my couch!! So tomorrow I will have a good look at the Q's :redface:

:lol: he was quite miserable about his broken glasses so had to think of something quick or face grumpy for the rest of the trip :? :lol:
:lol: they can be tricky little things! and seem to find the strangest places to make themselves at home. Hopefully he/she found more suitable accomodations outside? :lol:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Thu Jan 13, 2011 8:53 pm 
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Thanks to everyone who has submitted so far for round 2 :thumbs_up:

Nungu
Pantera Leo
Bishop3006

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 14, 2011 8:43 pm 
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Thanks to everyone who has submitted so far for round 2

Nungu
Pantera Leo
Bishop3006
ecojunkie

Next round will probably be open for quite a bit longer :thumbs_up: , because Im away from the 18th to the 25th on a field trip with the university doing projects on bats or puff adders, not decided which Im going to choose yet :hmz:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 16, 2011 4:27 pm 
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Well done everyone!! :clap: :clap:

Points for round 2:

Toko: 30
ecojunkie:29
Nungu:27
Klipsprringer:25
Koedoe:7
Pantera leo:25
Jungle junkie:15
Bishop:26

Image

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 16, 2011 6:16 pm 
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oddesy wrote:
January: Round 2

Bonus Question: (worth up to 5 points)
Why do herbivores form groups ?(herds etc), think about the advantages and disadvantages.
There are a number of reasons why animals form groups and to discover what these reasons are you have to consider the costs and benefits of this and how this behaviour may be favoured by ecological pressures.
One of the first reasons they form groups is for protection from predators. The greater the number of animals the greater the percentage of time that the group as a whole spends being vigilant (which is when their heads are up and they are not feeding). So as numbers increase the groups vigilance or time spent looking for predators as a whole increases BUT the vigilance per individual decreases. This means that each individual can now afford to be less alert and devote more time to feeding and other activities which is a huge advantage for forming groups. The second part to avoiding predation in groups is what is known as the dilution effect. Here the chance that any individual will be preyed upon is substantially reduced because there is a greater prey base. The last point involved in avoiding predation by forming groups is that animals may often bunch together. This breaks up body shapes and confuses the predator during a hunt, resulting in a greater chance that the hunt will be unsuccessful. This point ties in with group mobbing behaviour where animals such as birds, buffalo, wildebeest etc will band together and actively confront the would be predator.

Other benefits for living in groups is:
- Accessibility to mates during the breeding season
-Communal nurseries (increasing offspring survival rate)
-In some groups the animals are able to have access to higher quality food resources
-Social learning through observation of others

Now there are possible costs to living in groups and include
-Issues in synchronisation (groups have time budgets where time is spent feeding, fighting or being vigilant. Now in a group there may be animals that have different needs such as pregnant females or when males and females are found together)
-Competition for resources
-Infanticide
-Increased competition between males for access to females
-Transmission of disease
- large group numbers may attract predators as well

All of these factors effect group size and optimal group size is often dependent on resource distribution and seasonal variability as well as the perceived risk of predation.



1:
Animals are territorial due to some perceived benefit to the fitness of that animal, whether it is access to mates (reproductive fitness) or high quality resources (survival fitness). Whether to be territorial or not involves the animal weighing up the costs and benefits (instinctively). If they defend a territory they may have access to mates or high quality food but they then face the costs of a decreased amount of time that they can spend feeding as well as there being the risk of injury. Knowing this now imagine a scenario where there exists high quality and highly concentrated resources (hot spots), such as fruiting trees and carcass, what is the best strategy for the animal to maximise benefits for itself? (think of scavengers, birds or primates).

Here lots of you gave me very nice answers and made many valid points which I scored you on.The answer I was looking for was for you to describe the fact that at these hot spots there will be a large number of animals and that to defend the resource would incur huge costs to the animal in terms of reduced time that it can spend feeding as well as the risk of injury. Therefore it would mean that in a case such as this the animal would cease to be territorial and to maximise benefits to itself partake in a "feeding frenzy". This means that to gain the most benefits the animal would not be territorial and simply eat as much as it can as quickly as it can to out compete others of its species. Think of jackals or baboons. They are great examples of where a feeding frenzy behaviour is most cost effective

2: There are two main types of digestive physiology, ruminants and hind gut fermenters (non-ruminants). A ruminant would be like a buffalo or waterbuck for example and non-ruminants are animals like rhino, elephant and zebra. In the dry season the quality of the food declines (less nutrients and sugar and an increase in fibre) how will these two different groups respond in terms of their feeding behaviour (how long) and intake (how much)?
A ruminant will tend to have a lower daily food intake and ruminate longer while hind gut fermenters would eat more per day and feed for longer.

Ruminants have a slow passage rate of fibre and because of this they would spend a greater portion of the day feeding , although taking in less and ruminating more. so basically they maximise the time spent extracting nutrients from the food. Ruminants can choose to ruminate (chew the cud) longer up to a point while HGF have much faster passage rates and would tend to eat much more to obtain the nutrients they need in the dry season. Also here some HGF would turn to browsing instead of grazing to obtain the nutrients they require as the browse is more nutrient rich longer into the dry season after the grass has already senesced (died).




3: What two main purposes does a snakes venom serve?
Snake venom serves as a tool used to capture prey my immobilizing or killing them. This maximises the energy which the snake gains from its prey as this minimises the distance or energy it has to expend in capture. Venom can also be used as an offensive tool in extreme circumstances where it is a life or death situation for the snake.

Secondly venom is actually modified saliva and contains enzymes that assist in breaking down animal tissue to assist in the digestion process making it overall much more efficient.


4:Crocodiles have what is known as temperature sex determination (TSD). At what temperature would you expect females or males to be born?
TSD is a very interesting form of reproduction as most animals have what is called genetic sex determination where the complement of chromosomes determines whether the animal is male or female. In crocodiles males are born if the incubation temperature in the nest is about 31.46 to 34.5 (but varies slightly depending on which source you use. Females are born if incubation temperatures in the clutch are above or below these pivotal temperatures

5:
What is a sodic site and why are they important?
A sodic site is generally a bare patch of ground with very limited plant growth and can sometimes be grey in colour. In savannas there are what are called catenas and this is basically a hill slope in the environment which is characterised by different hill-slope units with well defined vegetation and soil associations. Sodic sites form on the lower slopes of catenas found in granitic landscapes (these are much steeper and have unique assemblages at different levels in comparison to basaltic catenas) where leaching has caused the sodium to leach from the upper slopes containing sodium rich granite. This sodium collects in the lower slopes and can either be flocculated or deflocculated clay b horizon (clay plug) (If you want more info on this just ask :thumbs_up: ).

Sodic sites have a pH of about 8.5, a sodium absorption ratio of 6-8 and exchangeable sodium potential of more than 15% .

Sodic sites make excellent wallowing areas and are generally sparsely vegetated so make ideal areas for herds to sleep at night as the area is more open so detecting predators is easier. The soil is rich in sodium and other minerals as well as calcium and magnesium and is important source of these for grazers and browsers. The herbivores gain these minerals by licking the ground or feeding on the little vegetation that is able to grow here. Magic Guarri (Euclea divinorum) is often found growing in sodic sites.


enjoy :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 17, 2011 10:29 pm 
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Im so glad everyone is enjoying it :thumbs_up: :thumbs_up: :D

Im away from tomorrow so round 3 will be open until January 26th (next week Wednesday). Seeing as you have a bit more time im going to try come up with some questions that make you think a little bit more :twisted:

[January: Round 3]


1:
In nature reptiles and other ectothermic animals have to regulate their body temperatures by making use of external energy sources and through physiological and behavioural regulatory responses. Why do you think that a Southern African Python would be found with its body submerged in the water early in the morning having been there the entire nigh?t, and secondly during what time of the year would you expect this to happen?

Bonus for up to 5 points:
Following on with question 1. What are the differences in appearance and behaviour between a brooding and a non brooding python?

2:
Im sure you have all heard of corridors between natural areas being important for maintaining species persistence, but why is that? and then why is a reserve that is round in shape in terms of boundaries more likely to benefit species persistence (so that they do not go extinct) than a reserve that is square or oblong in shape?

3:
Which will benefit from global warming more and why, trees (woody plant material) or grasses?(herbaceous plant material)

4:
Why are termite mounds important in Savannas?

5:
You are lucky and you get to go on a guided walk in kruger. You happen to come across a river/stream and are forced to cross it. You stumble on a rock upending it and notice these little creatures stuck to the rock and swimming away from it. You immediately know they are stoneflies. Later on in the walk you cross another stream only this time you see tons of dragon fly nymphs ontop of the water.

From this what can you tell me about the difference in the water quality between the two rivers and about the rivers themselves (speed , depth )

Hope I have not gone overboard with the questions :pray: ENJOY and ill "see" you all next week :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 28, 2011 7:57 pm 
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No answers submitted for this round :( , everyone must have had a very busy last week and a half and I completely understand :)

Ill have the answers up for interest sake sometime tomorrow :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Open Category Quiz - 2011 revival (QM)
Unread postPosted: Sat Jan 29, 2011 1:39 pm 
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Quote:
Answers submitted for this round:

Bishop3006
Toko

We can keep this round going until sunday night so all who want to participate can. Time is not really a problem just so long as everyone can enjoy the quiz :thumbs_up:

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