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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby geoff_jungle » Mon Nov 04, 2013 6:37 pm

SAF wrote:I just thought this is an interesting topic.We love KNP and we usually end up going throughout the year.the only thing that always puts doubts in our mind is the malaria issue.personally I have never heard from anyone I know that has contracted malaria in KNP.i know it is a malaria risk area but I want to find out how serious it is.
I heard Sanparks spray DDT to help prevent malaria don't know how true it is.I know it takes 1 mosquito to pass it on but just thought it is interesting to know.
Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?


According to IOL media reports last week there were 6 suspected cases of malaria reported in the Hazyview area. Five cases were apparently confirmed. I've never heard of anyone being infected in the Park. Even St Lucia and Sodwana Bay are reportedly clear

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby tent dweller » Tue Nov 05, 2013 4:58 am

Dream Weaver wrote:My Dad died of cerebral malaria that he caught in the Kruger Park despite having taken precautionary medication.


:shock: :( :( :( :( , sorry to hear about your dads passing Dream Weaver, what precautionary measures do you take when visiting the park?
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby RemiE » Wed Nov 06, 2013 8:22 am

Dream Weaver wrote:We also take vitamin B1 tablets.


Thanks for the advice Dream Weaver. I see many people do take B vitamins. Excuse me for asking a stupid question, but how exactly does B1 or other B vitamins prevent contracting malaria or attracting mosquitoes? Either way, I’m stocking up on it :D
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby RemiE » Wed Nov 06, 2013 10:31 am

Elsa wrote:I heard the Vit B somehow changes the "taste" of ones blood which is not to the liking of the mosquitoes.
but not sure how scientific or proven it is.


:hmz: Will give it a try

Once in the park someone used that as their excuse for their copious ‘brandy and coke’ consumption. :mrgreen:
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby RemiE » Thu Nov 07, 2013 8:34 am

Some research would be beneficial. Please share.........
I didn’t find much, but stumbled upon the following on the site of the American Mosquito Control Association

“As you can see, the situation is complicated and will require many years of testing before it can be sorted out. Visual stimuli, such as movement, also factor into host-seeking. What can be safely stated, though, is that ingestion of garlic, vitamin B12 and other systemics has been proven in controlled laboratory studies to have no impact on mosquito biting. Conversely, eating bananas did not attract mosquitoes as the myth suggests, but wearing perfumes does. People drinking beer have been shown to be more attractive to mosquitoes. Limburger cheese has also been found to be attractive. Scientists have theorized that this may explain the attractancy some mosquitoes find for human feet” :hmz: (wonder if this would apply to the mozzies in SA?) :hmz:

http://www.mosquito.org/faq
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby JeanniR » Thu Nov 07, 2013 9:18 am

Here is another article about taking Vitamin B, found here

There's no doubt mosquitoes prefer some people over others, but can vitamin B turn someone who is usually a target for mosquitoes into a turn-off.

Although this home remedy is often espoused in the popular press there's no solid scientific evidence to back it up. Medical entomologist Dr Cameron Webb says taking vitamin B before your next BBQ will do little to keep mosquitoes at bay.


And research done my Prof de Jager from the University of Pretoria. Found here

Malaria myths

It is better to take no preventative steps, because that hides symptoms and makes it harder to diagnose the disease.
There is a new, deadly type of malaria.
Preventative medicines offer no protection against the development of cerebral malaria.
Malaria is incurable.
Preventative medicines need only to be taken during a visit to a malaria area.
One can stop using these medicines if you have not been bitten.
People who are seldom bitten by mosquitoes need not take preventative medicines.
It does not help to take medicines against malaria as it is not 100% effective.
The side effects of the preventative medicines are worse than malaria itself.
Garlic, Vitamin B and ultrasound equipment can protect you against malaria.
You need not take preventative steps if you are going to be in a malaria area for only a few days.
Mosquitoes only bite after dark.
The pesticide DDT is the best weapon against malaria.
Climate change will cause a sharp rise in the number of malaria cases.
Malaria cannot be transmitted through blood transfusions.
Malaria is only a danger to young people and senior citizens.
You need not worry about malaria in the dry season.
Malaria can be cured with homeopathic medicines and the use of herbs.
Such is the human race, often it seems a pity that Noah... didn't miss the boat.
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby missings.a.! » Fri Nov 08, 2013 3:42 pm

Koen wrote:
SAF wrote:Just wanted to know about KNP whether they have sprayed DDT and maybe that is the cause of the decline in malaria cases in KNP in recent time


It certainly would mean a decline and or extinction of microoorganisms, bird life, insect life, fish, amphibians, mammals.

Surely DDT has not been used since before the 1960's, hopefully never? Not in the kruger Park :|

South Africa had 64 000 cases of Malaria in the 90's up to 2000 when DDT was reintroduced :evil:

Dont know what present figures are but it could explian the death of so many crocdiles last few years, even if it wasn't used in the park itself.


Koen I read your comments and mostly agree with your sentiments, but on this have to say that DDT is not evil.

The book The Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, started the anti DDT movement and in effect was the cause of the deaths of millions of people from malaria throughout the rest of the world.

The United States tied Aid around the concept that a government must not use DDT.

Scientists have since then, shown that birds and other animals were not dying from DDT and, there is a big difference between the USA saturating crops with DDT and preventing governments in poor countries from protecting their people from malaria.

The WHO advocates the use of DDT.

In the end though, One With Nature has worked long and hard to help and advise forumites regarding malaria prevention over on the Malaria thread.

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby missings.a.! » Sat Nov 09, 2013 5:30 pm

Dear Koen,

This forum is about debate and we can discuss things in a calm manner.

There is no suggestion to spray thalidomide in huts or surrounding areas where people live. I have looked at the website of the WHO and in the 60s there was an idea to combine thalidomide with other drugs to halt leprosy.

This is about DDT. We in the West must be careful of what we do in the name of the environment. The Western pharmaceutical companies developed vaccines against smallpox, polio, diphtheria, cholera, etc etc.

The environmental campaign that DDT killed insects and birds is not true. You even suggested it could have killed crocodiles.

USA does not have malaria within its borders. If it did, it would spray DDT pronto!

It certainly would mean a decline and or extinction of microorganisms, bird life, insect life, fish, amphibians, mammals.


There is no evidence that DDT has killed these insects, birds and whatever. It was shown the egg of the bald Eagle was thinner!!

Since DDT was halted, tens of millions of people have died in Third World countries, mostly children under five years of age in Africa. It is said production and development in these countries was reduced by 40%.

Would I want my food sprayed with DDT? No not really. But as a spoiled Westerner I like to know the farm my chickens comes from.

Would I spray DDT in my home and on my land to prevent malaria? Yes I would.

Sanparks and the surrounding areas have to do the best they can for the people in danger of contracting malaria.

It is all on the World Health Website, based in Geneva with its leaders from countries around the world.

See Forbes magazine and other academics on this subject.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/henrymiller ... fantasies/

Worth reading!

The elimination of malaria in the USA. Guess what? They used DDT!

http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/histor ... on_us.html

Any discussion about a killer disease is serious and we have a duty not to discourage people from protecting themselves.

Anyway, perhaps we will meet up in Kruger one day. :gflower:

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby bondm » Sat Nov 09, 2013 10:23 pm

It seems that this discussion has drifted away from the original topic. I don't know personally of anyone who has contracted malaria following a visit to the Kruger Park, although a friend did contract it when visiting Central Africa and was in hospital for a couple of weeks.

I have worked with many people who contracted malaria during service in Burma in the war and anyone who thinks the side effects of the medication is worse than the disease is deluding themselves.

I have been visiting the Kruger for over 20 years and always take a medication, although once I took Larium and felt so ill I ended up returning to Jo'burg where I was told it was due to the side effects of the medication. However, my wife had no problems with the Larium. We now take Malarone and yes, it is expensive, but I am assured it is the most effective medication.

We also use insect repellants, plug-ins and a daily dose of gin and tonic. The latter may not protect us from the mozzies but it does help us to sleep through the noise of the fan and air con. unit.

Less than 2 weeks to our next trip - yippee!

Watchout for the hippos, which are reputed to be the second biggest killer in Africa.

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby tent dweller » Sun Nov 10, 2013 7:17 am

moobox wrote:Yip. My father-in-law contracted it but years ago and I dont know if it was in KNP that he got it. He grew up on a farm in the Lowveld.

But my wife reacts pretty badly to the meds and I dont know if it is any specific type or brand. so I'm in a bit of a quandry because we are due to go to KNP in December but I dont want her to spend the time there feeling ill.



moobox, we don't take anti malaria medicine BUT we do the following: at about 4.30pm we put on long pants and long sleeve sweaters/shirts, we spray our necks (back and front),our wrists, our ankles, when it gets dark I light a Tabard citronella candle in our accommodation and outside our accommodation I burn very big sandal wood anti mosquito incense sticks (I purchased them from a 4X4 outdoor shop) and then of course we leave the fan on the whole night, that is where the liquid refreshments come into play, you need to have a few of them so you can sleep while the fan is making a noise the whole night. We are staying in Balule in Dec, so that means no electricity, but we bought a battery operated fan so hopefully we will be equipped to fight the mozzies :hmz: :hmz:
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Re: Malaria

Unread postby missings.a.! » Sun Nov 10, 2013 11:35 am

For those willing to read a bit,
copied from the WHOs website re South Africa and malaria.

Dramatic decline in malaria deaths in Africa

Scientists plan for final eradication


TDR news item
14 October 2013

With widespread use of insecticide-treated nets, indoor spraying and potent malaria medications credited with dramatically reducing malaria deaths in Africa, experts at a major malaria conference discussed the potential to use this progress as a springboard for achieving eradication of a disease that still kills some 660,000 people each year — most of them young African children.

“For the first time we have achieved very large-scale vector control coverage in Africa, and these interventions have prevented a large number of deaths and greatly reduced the burden of transmission,” said Jo Lines, a malaria expert with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine who previously led the Vector Control Unit of the World Health Organization’s Global Malaria Program. “So while there is a lot of attention still rightly focused on how we can win the battles of today or next week or next year, we can start turning our attention to the longer-term and think about what is needed to win the war.”

Lines was one of several malaria experts discussing the road to malaria eradication in Africa at the Sixth Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) Pan-African Malaria Conference - the world’s largest gathering of malaria experts - taking place in Durban, South Africa, 6-11 October 2013. Presentations at MIM, including the symposium Lines chaired on “planning for the endgame in Africa,” highlighted how scientists are transitioning from eradication as a lofty aspiration to one that involves an operational plan on the ground.

For example, researchers from South Africa discussed efforts to develop a web site dense with data on local malaria infections, part of the country’s effort to fight practically case by case to achieve its goal of eliminating malaria from the country by 2018. And researchers from Namibia presented the results from a joint effort to police malaria with neighboring Angola, an example, they said, of the cross-border initiatives that will be needed across Africa to eliminate malaria from the continent. Other researchers offered new approaches to malaria control they believe may be more “sustainable.”

According to an abstract by Chistopher Plowe with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, vaccines are likely to be essential to malaria elimination, given that vaccines have been part of “nearly all successful” infectious disease eradication efforts and “absent from all unsuccessful campaigns.”

The elimination conundrum: making malaria get out and stay out

Lines said that eliminating malaria in Africa requires confronting a range of confounding questions. For example, he noted that increasing access to things like insecticide treated nets and artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), while crucial to saving lives and reducing disease transmission, comes at a cost: the more they are used, the faster mosquitoes and parasites are likely develop resistance. Also, he said that while malaria transmission patterns are “changing radically” across Africa, it’s not always clear why.



“The lesson you want to learn from areas that have eliminated malaria is not just how did you drive it out but how did you keep it out."

Joe Lines, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

For example, he said his research has documented that there was a significant decrease in malaria transmission in parts of Tanzania before these areas saw widespread use of insecticide treated nets. Meanwhile, in parts of Uganda and Malawi, he said transmission has remained intense despite aggressive use of bed nets and better access to effective medications.

“We don’t know why these interventions are not working equally well in all places in Africa or why in some areas, like Tanzania, the fight against malaria appears to be aided by some other process,” he said. “We do know that when we look back at areas that have eliminated malaria, like the Southern US and Europe, we see that things like land use change, housing and human behavior played a part — potentially a very large part — in conquering the disease.”

Lines said eliminating malaria in Africa requires a better understanding of the different factors affecting transmission and also more attention to disease surveillance. Such work is crucial, he said, to ensuring that once malaria is eliminated from a particular region, it doesn’t simply re-establish itself when an infected individual migrates from areas where malaria is still common.

“The lesson you want to learn from areas that have eliminated malaria is not just how did you drive it out but how did you keep it out,” he said.

He said elimination might ultimately need to involve some way of reducing the capacity of mosquitoes or humans to transmit the parasite.

For example, there is work underway today to develop a vaccine that would interrupt the life-cycle of the malaria parasite by preventing it from passing from humans back to mosquitoes. Other efforts have focused on the potential of genetically modified mosquitoes that are rendered incapable of passing along the parasite.

Eyes on the prize: elimination via disease surveillance

In South Africa, which hopes to eliminate malaria by 2018, tracking the total number of infections, recording where they are occurring and following-up to confirm details such as travel history and symptoms is a cornerstone of the country’s elimination strategy. South Africa’s intensive malaria surveillance program includes a website that is constantly updated and features an outbreak alert system and an automated mapping program that can depict malaria cases down to the local level.

A study by Bridget M. Shandukani with South Africa’s National Department of Health found that this type of meticulous surveillance, while costly and labor-intensive, is essential to finishing off malaria in countries like South Africa that have reduced malaria transmission to relatively low levels. She and her colleagues reported that during the 2012-2013 season, all nine of the districts in South Africa at risk for malaria entered into elimination mode, “reporting local case incidences of less than one case per one thousand population at risk.”

Meanwhile, researchers from Namibia presented a study that highlights the importance of cross-border initiatives for countries targeting elimination. They noted that most of the malaria cases in northern Namibia are “imported from southern Angola.” The study examined the effectiveness of a program—the Trans Kunene Malaria Initiative—that implemented a host of interventions in a 20-square kilometer region on both sides of the Namibia-Angola border.

The interventions included long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets, rapid diagnostic tests, community education and case management. Also, both governments agreed to remove customs duties from malaria “commodities,” including bed nets and chemicals used for indoor spraying programs.

The study, presented at MIM and led by Constance Njovu with the JC Flowers Foundation’s Isdell:Flowers Cross Border Malaria Initiative, noted that both areas targeted achieved a significant reduction in malaria.

“These results show that cross-border work is both critical to elimination of malaria and possible despite (involving) different national governments with language and cultural differences,” the scientists reported.

Meanwhile, researchers from the University of Pretoria focused on developing “sustainable” tools for malaria control, which they view as crucial to creating more durable reduction in illness and death and thus a more stable platform from which to pursue malaria eradication.

A study by Leo Braack with the University’s Center for Sustainable Malaria Control (CSMC) investigated night-time mosquito biting behavior outdoors, which, given the effectiveness of bed nets, are where an increasing proportion of malaria infections occur. The study found that most bites happen at or near ground level. Braack and his colleagues concluded that simply wearing mosquito-repellent anklets “holds the potential to lower malaria incidence.”

The CSMC’s Taneshka Kruger along with colleagues at the University’s Institute of Applied Materials sought to address limits to bed nets and indoor spraying as control measures: one has to be sleeping under a bed net to enjoy its protection, they noted, while indoor spraying is costly and raises fears of exposure to toxic chemicals. They found that lining interior doors with a mesh fabric treated with a slow-releasing insecticide was a safe, effective and potentially inexpensive form of long-lasting malaria control.

The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM), launched in Dakar, Senegal in 1997, is an international alliance of organizations and individuals seeking to maximize the impact of scientific research against malaria in Africa to ensure that research findings yield practical health benefits. The MIM conference in Durban follows successful conferences held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in November 2005, and in Nairobi in October 2009. The MIM Secretariat is currently hosted by the Biotechnology Centre of the University of Yaoundé I/Amsterdam Medical Centre.

For more information, please contact

Jamie Guth
TDR Communications Manager
Telephone: +44 79 441 2289
E-mail:guthj@who.int

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby Meandering Mouse » Mon Nov 11, 2013 5:54 am

gabbisa wrote:I contracted malaria in the 1990's after camping at Maroela. As we used to go so often we did not take anti-malaria tablets but did use sprays.

Going to KNP for so many years I think contracting it once is not to bad.

I would recommend however that all visitors take anti-malaria medicine, especially children.

While visiting Tanzania a couple of years ago, I found there Health Department very good. If you suspect you have malaria, you go to a hospital and they take a test and can tell you within about an hour if you clear or not.


forestgump wrote:I have got malaria from Shipandani Hide in Kruger. I got eaten alive by the mozzies, and just knew that night that chances were good of getting it. I ended up in hospital too.


How soon did the symptoms start? Was the diagnosis made quickly?

Forest, that sounds like a very serious dose. :shock:
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby Stephens.L » Mon Nov 11, 2013 9:28 am

SAF wrote:Thanks for the responses
I am aware of Bruce Bryden, read his magical book :D
Was just wondering of people like myself visiting the park
Is anyone aware of the DDT spraying in KNP?
Heard they started spraying around 2006, if it is true anyone that has contracted after that?


In an attempt to prevent Malaria, the Department of Health often visit the park to spray houses and other tourists facilities. The KNP work closely with the Department of Health to ensure that staff members and visitors of the park are not at risk of being exposed to Malaria.
Regards

Stephens Ledwaba
Communications and Marketing Department
Kruger National Park
+27 (0)13 735 4116
stephens.ledwaba@sanparks.org

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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby francoisd » Mon Nov 11, 2013 10:27 am

For the life cycle of the malaria parasite you need some of the following; a mosquito vector and a human infected with the malaria parasite. The larger the concentration of infected humans the greater the chance that you will find infected mosquitoes and linked to it the greater the chance of being infected. You therefor stand a greater chance of getting malaria visiting a town bordering Kruger than in a rest camp such as Satara.

Kruger falls within the high risk malaria area of South Africa as the risk is calculated based upon the malaria cases in towns neighbouring Kruger. In some of the highest risk rural communities in Mpumalanga the incidence of malaria can be as high as 20 per 1000 people (2%) (source 1). A scientific survey on travellers to Kruger in April of 1996 showed an incidence rate of 4.5 per 10 000 people (0.045%) (source 2) which is significantly lower than in surrounding towns. April was chosen as this is supposedly a higher risk malaria month in South Africa and 1996 was a malaria epidemic year.

Your chances therefor of contracting malaria inside Kruger are significantly less than going to the shops in Hazeyview for instance. This said one should keep in mind that on a good "day" the Anopheles mosquito can travel up to 12km in a night so theoretically your chances of contracting malaria in a camp/venue in Kruger that is close to a town or rural committee is larger than further away.

And as to the original question: my uncle contracted malaria while constructing roads in northern Kruger some years ago but again he was in Kruger for an extended period of time and close to the communities in the Punda Maria area
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Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?

Unread postby francoisd » Tue Nov 12, 2013 10:05 am

Koen wrote:
Stephens.L wrote:In an attempt to prevent Malaria, the Department of Health often visit the park to spray houses and other tourists facilities. The KNP work closely with the Department of Health to ensure that staff members and visitors of the park are not at risk of being exposed to Malaria.


What do the Department of Health use to spray "houses and other tourist facilities" with in the Kruger National Park?

Not sure what is used in Kruger but DDT is still accepted for indoor residual spraying and forms a large part of SA's control programme in especially rural areas. DDT is however not as effective on plastered or painted walls so might not be used in Kruger

At one stage South Africa stopped using it and used alternatives but the effect on the mosquitoes was not that great and it led to malaria epidemic in the country and in 2000 SA applied to the Stockholm Convention to be added to the list of countries exempt from the "ban" on use of DDT. South Africa had such great success in decreasing the incidence of malaria after this that the WHO in 2006 has done an about-turn on the use of Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT) to fight malaria, citing South Africa's successful anti-malaria programme as evidence that controlled indoor spraying of the insecticide is not only safe, but "one of the best tools we have" against the killer disease(1).

The WHO Global Malaria Programme's guide on Indoor Residual Spraying have this statement in it: Effective implementation of IRS with DDT or other recommended insecticides should be a central part of national malaria control strategies where this intervention is appropriate.(2)

Also see:
Malaria vector control in South Africa
South Africa ALMA quarterly report
Wikipedia: Indoor residual spraying
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