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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 9:01 am 
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Testing on healthy human volunteers


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Sidebar: MVI Invests in Human Challenge Center

Once a malaria vaccine candidate has been tested for safety in a small number of healthy adult volunteers, some candidates may undergo a “challenge” phase of testing. Under this model, volunteers vaccinated with a malaria vaccine candidate are deliberately “challenged” with malaria through the bites of malaria-infected mosquitoes to assess whether or not the candidate vaccine can prevent or delay malaria infection.

This human challenge phase of malaria vaccine development can provide researchers with valuable information to decide whether or not to move a vaccine candidate forward for testing on a larger scale, including testing in malaria-endemic regions of the world. MVI has collaborated with the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (Seattle BioMed) to establish a center devoted to testing the safety and efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates in humans. The Malaria Clinical Trials Center at Seattle BioMed is one of only a handful of facilities of its kind worldwide.


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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 9:11 am 
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From Duke Medical School and Medical Research Centre

Absorption of DDT by human beings.


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Human Beings

In the early to mid 1950s, DDT became one of the most widely used pesticides. This was when we thought it was completely harmless to human beings. When we originally used it to control lice, people were unaffected even though they were in direct contact with the pesticides.


One of the reasons why the DDT did not affect people is because it is difficult for DDT to be absorbed through human skin.

Eventually, we realized that some DDT was staying in our bodies.

DDT was being used in the environment, on agricultural products, and on livestock. In the 1960's, concern arose about the widespread use of DDT and it's effects on humans.

A study in 1968 showed that Americans were consuming an average of 0.025 milligrams of DDT per day!



So the real cause for concern was spraying crops and livestock with DDT and thereby swallowing large amounts of DDT, but if the DDT is used as a spray in the home, it cannot be absorbed by humans through the skin.


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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 11:48 am 
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Koen wrote:
missings.a.! wrote:
if the DDT is used as a spray in the home, it cannot be absorbed by humans through the skin.


Samples taken where DDT is used on walls exterior and interiors show people in the area have unacceptable high levels of DDT in their blood. Birth defects like cretinism are far above national averages, children stop suckling prematurely, men become sterile......certain cancers are common.

There is no argument DDT is dangerous, short term less so than Malaria, yes absolutely.

I think though personaly I would like to know when my hut was last sprayed if it was at all with DDT?

I think we have the right to decide if we want to be exposed or not, simple.


You have called forumites stalkers so I do not want to get too involved but we have a duty not to scare people from accepting something that can prevent very serious diseases.

Other forumites have asked questions and these are the facts from the research of legitimate organisations.

The main focus of Duke University's report is concern for eating food sprayed with DDT and the thinning of egg shells of raptors -since that report, the number of raptors has grown and they are healthy.

The very respected universities of Pretoria and Cape Town work as one team with other organisations from around the world, to focus on the scourge that is malaria, tuberculosis, dengue fever and other diseases that seriously effect poorer countries, especially in Africa.

Just my opinion, but I do not think for one minute their professors and researchers would support a spray that caused "birth defects like cretinism are far above national averages, children stop suckling prematurely, men become sterile......certain cancers are common".

There is plenty on the internet and I have been amazed at the determined effort of organisations from different countries to work together.

Let us hope the anti poaching drive can achieve the same.


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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 3:57 am 
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The public should be 100% aware and able to make the decision for themselves if they wish to be exposed to DDT in any form.

If Sanparks is using DDT in visitor accomadation the visitor has a right know.

The issue of how toxic DDT indeed is, is too lenghy to do justice here.

Im not writting a thesis on the matter and all quotes and references are omitted but as you ask maybe reading the following will help. This is not even taking into account the damage to the environment just us.


People living in areas where DDT is used for indoor residual spraying have high levels of the chemical and its breakdown products in their bodies. Compared to contemporaries living where DDT is not used. South Africans living in sprayed homes have levels that are several orders of magnitude greater. Breast milk in regions where DDT is used against malaria greatly exceeds the allowable standards for breast-feeding infants.These levels are associated with neurological abnormalities in babies.

Most studies of DDT's human health effects have been conducted in developed countries where DDT is not used and exposure is relatively low. Many experts urge that alternatives be used instead of IRS.Epidemiologist Brenda Eskenazi argues, "We know DDT can save lives by repelling and killing disease-spreading mosquitoes. But evidence suggests that people living in areas where DDT is used are exposed to very high levels of the pesticide. The only published studies on health effects conducted in these populations have shown profound effects on male fertility. Clearly, more research is needed on the health of populations where indoor residual spraying is occurring, but in the meantime, DDT should really be the last resort against malaria rather than the first line of defense."

Illegal diversion to agriculture is also a concern, as it is almost impossible to prevent, and its subsequent use on crops is uncontrolled. For example, DDT use is widespread in Indian agriculture,particularly mango production, and is reportedly used by librarians to protect books. Other examples include Ethiopia, where DDT intended for malaria control is reportedly being used in coffee production, and Ghana where it is used for fishing."The residues in crops at levels unacceptable for export have been an important factor in recent bans in several tropical countries. Adding to this problem is a lack of skilled personnel and supervision.

Several recent studies demonstrate a link between in utero exposure to DDT or DDE and developmental neurotoxicity in humans. A 2006 University of California, Berkeley study found that children exposed while in the womb have a greater chance of development problems, and other studies have found that even low levels of DDT or DDE in umbilical cord serum at birth are associated with decreased attention at infancy and decreased cognitive skills at 4 years of age. Similarly, Mexican researchers have linked first trimester DDE exposure to retarded psychomotor development.

DDT is associated with early pregnancy loss, a type of miscarriage. A prospective cohort study of Chinese textile workers found "a positive, monotonic, exposure-response association between preconception serum total DDT and the risk of subsequent early pregnancy losses. The median serum DDE level of study group was lower than that typically observed in women living in homes sprayed with DDT.

DDT and DDE have been positively linked to diabetes. A number of recent studies from the US, Canada, and Sweden have found that the prevalence of the disease in a population increases with serum DDT or DDE levels.

2007, a Japanese study of congenital hypothyroidism concluded that in utero DDT exposure may affect thyroid hormone levels and "play an important role in the incidence and/or causation of cretinism. Other studies have also found that DDT or DDE interfere with proper thyroid function.

More recent evidence 2009 from epidemiological studies (i.e. studies in human populations and indoor residual indoor spraying) indicates that DDT causes cancers of the liver,pancreas and breast..........















http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT


Last edited by Koen on Tue Nov 19, 2013 6:35 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 9:54 am 
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I do not work for Sanparks and I do not object at all if they spray a hut where I stay in KNP. Most of the United States and Europe AND South Africa (in residential areas), eliminated malaria through DDT.


South Africa contributes to the World Health Organisation and there are plenty of statistics on the WHO website and South African Universities work with The London School of Tropical Diseases and the Centre for Disease Control in the United States on the campaign to eliminate malaria.

Malaria kills not only more than 600 thousand people a year mostly in Sub Saharan Africa, hundreds of millions contract every year. Which means those countries where malaria is endemic, cannot raise their standard of living with so many of their people very ill and unable to contribute to the economy. Key facts

FROM THE WEBSITE OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION[/b]

Quote:
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
In 2010, malaria caused an estimated 660 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 490 000 to 836 000), mostly among African children.
Malaria is preventable and curable.
Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.
Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected.


According to the latest estimates, there were about 219 million cases of malaria in 2010 (with an uncertainty range of 154 million to 289 million) and an estimated 660 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 490 000 to 836 000). Malaria mortality rates have fallen by more than 25% globally since 2000, and by 33% in the WHO African Region. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria. Country-level burden estimates available for 2010 show that an estimated 80% of malaria deaths occur in just 14 countries and about 80% of cases occur in 17 countries. Together, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria account for over 40% of the estimated total of malaria deaths globally.


Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.
Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected.
[/quote]

Both the United States AND Europe eliminated malaria through use of DDT!!

Read the World Health Organisations website and the London School of Tropical Medicine (that coordinates work of all countries).


Last edited by missings.a.! on Mon Nov 18, 2013 2:21 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 10:52 am 
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From the website of the United States official CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION.

The Elimination of Malaria in the United States (1947 — 1951)


The National Malaria Eradication Program was a cooperative undertaking by state and local health agencies of 13 southeastern states and the Communicable Disease Center of the U. S. Public Health Service, originally proposed by Dr. L. L. Williams. The program commenced operations on July 1, 1947.

It consisted primarily of DDT application to the interior surfaces of rural homes or entire premises in counties where malaria was reported to have been prevalent in recent years. By the end of 1949, more than 4,650,000 house spray applications had been made. It also included drainage, removal of mosquito breeding sites, and spraying (occasionally from aircrafts) of insecticides.

Total elimination of transmission of malaria was slowly achieved[.
In 1949, the country was declared free of malaria as a significant public health problem. By 1951, CDC gradually withdrew from active participation in the operational phases of the program and shifted its interest to surveillance, and in 1952, CDC participation in operations ceased altogether.

The role of CDC became one of surveillance within the U. S. and of assistance in the world-wide efforts to eliminate or control malaria in the economically underdeveloped areas of the world.

Enough already.


Last edited by missings.a.! on Mon Nov 18, 2013 1:53 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 12:57 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 22, 2013 11:45 am 
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Just my two cents worth... :-)

I contracted malaria camping at Balule in 1997 whilst travelling with friends. I did take prophylactics as prescribed by our family doctor. I wouldn't say that the warning signs for my case would be the same for everyone - but this was my experience.

About a week and half later, when I was supposed to be studying for exams I began experiencing flu-like symptoms that seemed to get worse as the day went on, but by morning I would feel ok-ish again. (Tough to convince your mom that you are sick and can't study when you wake up looking ok...) The back, shoulder and muscle ache along with the fever chills were pretty bad.

A couple of nights after that - I had an intense fever and passed out in the passage. I was taken by ambulance to Sandton Clinic (JHB) and spent a week in the ICU and a further week in another ward. I was diagnosed with cerebral malaria, and the few memories I have of the incident include the multitude of drips and other pipes attached to my body, not being able to keep any food down, drifting in and out of consciousness (always waking up with some new visitor reading my magazines!) The only positive of the experience was that I missed all of my exams :-D

I still visit KNP as often as I can (sadly not as often as I would like) - and while I don't take prophylactics anymore (please note - not taking prophylactics is my choice - and not to be taken as any sort of advice), I make sure that i cover up, use repellents and most importantly of all - if i feel ANY sort of flu like symptoms - i make sure to have a malaria blood test - that bit IS advice. :-) Malaria is definitely not something you'd wish on anyone - and it is serious business.

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 22, 2013 2:49 pm 
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Glad you pulled through Matthew!

Just to expand - Cerebral malaria is the same organism as "normal" malaria, but shows its effect on the brain, including bleeding. That is what makes it so dangerous. Everybody has different reactions , or at least different organs that are affected. so while some have severe kidney issues (black water fever) others don't. One form can change to another very easily.

Also note the waxing/waning of the symptoms - the malaria organism is a very clever little thing in that it changes its "cover" regularly. So your body makes antibodies to the organism's protein cover A , and starts winning the fight (you feel feverish, have signs) , the number of organisms decreases (you feel better) BUT then it changes to surface protein B and your immune system doesn't recognise it and doesn't kill it. and so the process starts again with your immune cells making antibody to protein B and fighting the organism .......... and then C .....

Why the long story? IF YOU HAVE FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS WITHIN 2-3 WEEKS OF BEING IN A MALARIA AREA , HAVE YOURSELF PROPERLY TESTED!

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 22, 2013 4:35 pm 
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Will be merging into the Malaria Topic shortly.

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 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Sat Nov 23, 2013 7:13 am 
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Gosh Matthew, what a horrible experience. :big_eyes: :big_eyes: :big_eyes: I am pleased that you pulled through.

I am very interested in your choice not to take Malaria prophylactics. Is there a special reason?

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 Post subject: Re: Many thanks to all-effective product for tick-mosquito
Unread postPosted: Tue Nov 26, 2013 6:33 pm 
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Thanks for sharing the info Hemant.

The product you described sounded familiar to me so I dug around a bit and found the following on Wikipedia:
Quote:
The chemical structure of pyrethrins inspired the production of a variety of synthetic insecticides called pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin.


I often use a similar product that can be sprayed onto your clothes before I go into the veld. On the can it says that it contains "Flumethrin (pyrethroid)".

I agree with you that it is excellent at controlling ticks, especially when you do a lot of walking "off-road" in the veld. I must admit I haven't tried it as a general insect repellent.

For those wondering I was able to buy some at the "Koöperasie" in Durbanville (Cape Town). So there are similar products available in South Africa, seems like you just have to know what to look for. (I blame the confusing names on too many chemists trying to get their Phd's... :wink: )


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 Post subject: Re: Malaria
Unread postPosted: Wed Nov 27, 2013 2:37 am 
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Matthew, so glad you pulled through unharmed from cerebral malaria; many people don't survive that. I'd be interested in knowing what prophylactics you used then, as the middle Nineties was around the time that chloroquine and proguanil was abandoned in favour of less-resistant drugs. Assuming that you used competent antimalarial prophylaxis for the time, you were genuinely unlucky that you contracted the disease, and that the disease deteriorated into the cerebral version so quickly.

I'm not quite sure why, after such a horrible experience, Matthew, that you do not take antimalarial medications anymore. I would think that, especially in your case, you would want to have as much blanket protection as possible; so antimalarial medicines + non-drug measures + even considering low-risk season, and so on. Know that the correct antimalarial medicines taken at the correct doses and times do not mask the disease, as is often thought by many people, but actually slows the progression of the disease so that there is more time to treat malaria once it is diagnosed.

Thank you for sharing your story, Matthew - more people may sit up and take notice when hearing of real situations where people contract malaria. I still hear of supposedly highly intelligent people giving poor advice regarding malaria prevention and/or treatment. Everything from drinking gin and tonic to using absolutely no preventative measures in a high-risk area. The best is always to get accurate and competent information before making malaria-related decisions.

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 Post subject: Re: Malaria
Unread postPosted: Wed Nov 27, 2013 8:38 am 
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I will have to assume DDT is beng used in the park and in tourist accomadation?


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 Post subject: Re: Malaria
Unread postPosted: Wed Nov 27, 2013 8:55 am 
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Koen, it would be nice to hear directly from SANParks regarding this; however, as South Africa in recent times is making huge progress against malaria using DDT - and recent statistics suggest a massive drop in affected people, as well as malaria-related deaths amongst those who contract the disease (phenomenally, SA is hoping to eradicate the disease entirely by 2018) - I'm pretty sure that this chemical is being used as part of antimalarial strategies. Of course, DDT will always be a controversial substance as it has been linked to congenital malformations, cancers, and infertility. Here is a link to read more ... http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/hea ... 42652.html

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