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Cape Buffalo

Find, identify and discuss the animals of all the SANParks
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gmlsmit
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Bovine Tuberculosis

Unread postby gmlsmit » Thu Dec 02, 2010 3:30 pm

I have received this article from the Natal Parks Board, maybe some would find it interesting.

Conflict between agriculture and wildlife has existed ever since man planted his first field and domesticated his first animal.
This conflict takes two main forms. Either wild animals eat his crops and stock or they infect his domestic animals with a disease that affects their ability to survive, reproduce or supply meat and milk.
The lengths that man has gone to, to win this war is the stuff of legend, but to this day, the conflict continues.
In a reversal of this situation, wildlife is being seriously affected by a disease that comes from domestic stock.
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a bacterial pathogen that is part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that causes clinical tuberculosis (TB) in humans and other mammals.
Notably these include cattle around the world, badgers in Britain, deer in North America, possums in New Zealand and a comprehensive array of wildlife throughout Africa, including buffalo, rhino, antelope, big cats, and monkeys.
BTB is transmitted primarily via aerosol pathways, but also through alimentary routes including saliva, intrauterine and milk consumption pathways.
Bovine Tuberculous (BTB)is was introduced from Europe into South Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries through the importation of infected cattle.
It was first detected in South Africa in cattle in 1880.
Evidence of BTB transmission to wildlife was obtained in 1929, when the disease was detected in the Eastern Cape in Kudu and common Duiker.
Since that time BTB has been found in a large variety of wildlife seriously impacting some species.
The Kruger National Park looses about 25 lions per year to BTB as lions prey on buffalo, the main carriers in the Park.
BTB was first diagnosed in African buffalo in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in 1990, where it was found to occur along its southern boundary.
Further sampling during the 1990s revealed that BTB was increasing in prevalence in the southern sectors of KNP while spreading northwards.
BTB was first detected in a black rhino in Hluhluwe/iMfolozi Park (HIP) in 1970.
In 1986 BTB was confirmed to be prevalent in HiP buffalo, with the source attributed to local cattle mixing with buffalo before the park was fully fenced in the 1960s.
Monitoring of the extent and spread of the disease in buffalo initially took the form of lethal sampling, capture and skin tests, where the animals had to be held in bomas for 72 hours, and collaring specific animals to track their movement and subsequent spread of the disease.
More recently, the use of interferon-gamma (IFNg) BOVIGAM TM assay that, unlike skin tests, does not require confining or recapturing animals, has simplified the monitoring process and cut costs.
BTB infections, whether in wildlife or cattle to cattle, pose a very real risk to humans due to their close association with sick animals during herding and milking.
Also individuals, particularly children, the elderly, malnourished and immuno-compromised, risk alimentary infection though ingestion of bacteria in milk and dairy products.
BTB has been isolated in dairy products throughout Africa, and children given raw milk are particularly at risk of developing infection in lymph nodes, a common condition in Europe in the 19th century prior to widespread pasteurisation of milk.
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.

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salamanda
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Re: Bovine Tuberculosis

Unread postby salamanda » Thu Dec 02, 2010 8:33 pm

Thanks for posting this GMLS. I didn't realise it was introduced to this country so long ago.

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ossendryver
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby ossendryver » Sun Dec 12, 2010 4:12 pm

Last edited by Elsa on Tue Aug 27, 2013 5:46 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Reason: Pic resized.

Lanzerac
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby Lanzerac » Fri Jan 28, 2011 10:58 pm

Kruger bulls are generally big but this young bull is going to be huge. His boss (Centre of horns above the eyes) is still smooth and undeveloped and he is still growing out odf his current size shown at the tips. Look how wide the horns are already and they were wider/bigger than the herd bull

Image

100ponder
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby 100ponder » Sat Jan 29, 2011 7:24 am

Lanzerac,

That is truly a magnificent buffalo - mid life with horns already in the 44" - 48" class. I just love the large open sweeping curl of his horns.

If he can survive without breaking his horns, then he is destined to exceed 50" at the end of his life.

Where did you encounter him ? Buff herds are roughly territorial and other visitors to the same area can be on the look out for him.

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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby Lanzerac » Sat Jan 29, 2011 12:23 pm

100ponder I just love to encounter a large herd of buff in the road especially on a quiet road like the S90 at Bangu windmill where this was taken. Its a herd of about 400-450 buff. They seem to hang around this windmill and the bangu dam (only accessable if you do the Olifants Wilderness Trail and you request a walk in that area.) I have also encountered them at the Hlaleni Spruit where it crosses the S90 5 kms back towards Balule camp.

Interesting it was my first morning in the Kruger last year Aug at Balule first stop and as I do every morning from Balule..I go straight to Bangu without fail first thing. I arrived at the waterhole in the pre sunrise gloom and scanned...Doves and elephant dung a few days old but I was still getting my 'bush eyes'. Natal Francolin started calling frantically along that spruit I had just crossed as you approach the windmill. I let it go ...thought the were just saying hello to a new day. But it got louder and louder so I started up and pointed back towards Balule only to see 4 HUGE Black maned lions in single file 200m metres in front crossing the road from left to right and up that no entry 2 strip road.

I drove up and there they were plodding over the hill and 300 metres in front was this herd of buff running across the road right to left at the sight and scent of this serious cat parade. So 2nd prize I went to the buff who had now slowed to a slow shuffle and they let me into their midst. I recognised the herd bull at the rear a huge fellow with about 43" spread but the thickest rutted boss out. Soon the interest started to focus on me with buff all around me with the engine off and windows open..naturally its Kruger. Then I saw this fellow in the pic above. As you say he is going to be record class in his old age. Bangu cooks at sunrise sometimes so UI really work it hard ina 10 day period.. I hope you and other forumites find the herd it was a real privaledge to see 4 x Big lion and this future Buff king all at a real favorite awterhole and not another car in sight

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FlorisCathy
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby FlorisCathy » Mon Feb 07, 2011 4:46 pm

Could hold this one for myself:

Image
I am a heartless person,
Not because I am cruel.
No, it's because I am in The Netherlands right now,
And my heart is still in South Africa

http://sanparks.org/forums/viewtopic.php?style=2&f=27&t=54927

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adw
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby adw » Mon Feb 07, 2011 5:29 pm

Great shots everyone. Lanzerac that is one fine young bull there. I have seen a herd near Bangu but did not see that guy. I will keep a lookout for him when I am next at Satara
Rhino Poaching - Highlight's man's stupidity and greediness.

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adw
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby adw » Tue Feb 08, 2011 8:39 pm

I reviewed my photos from my Jan trip. This herd of buffalo was also near the Bangu waterhole. This young bull also had a nice set of horns.

Image
Rhino Poaching - Highlight's man's stupidity and greediness.

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bishop3006
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Re: Buffalo

Unread postby bishop3006 » Wed Feb 09, 2011 8:04 am

:shock: Holy smoke! If there were buffalo poachers and not just rhino/ivory poachers, these guys would be in serious trouble! They are gonna be really big boy if they manage to stay alive!! Some good genes floating around there it seems.
Marius
Hunter, nature lover, conservationist.

I believe that for man to survive, we must work with nature rather than against her. We need the land; the land doesn't need us. Too many people have lost sight of this fact. - Bruce Truter

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Fatcat
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Buffalo Charges

Unread postby Fatcat » Mon Jun 20, 2011 2:04 pm

Hi All, I have heard countless accounts of people being charged by buffalo :big_eyes: , but has anyone actually been hit / hurt by one? Never waited around after reversing for kms to find out what would happen. Aslo is it true that the buffalo is the only one of the big 5 that does not "mock" charge, they say if it comes you run ?
13 to 16 Dec 2014 - Lower Sabie
17 to 21 Dec 2014 - Maroela

bri
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Re: Buffalo Charges

Unread postby bri » Mon Jun 20, 2011 2:16 pm

Plus minus 2 years ago, two families (husbands and wifes) were on a day trail in Mountain Zebra Park Cradock. The buffalo charged and the one husband was fatally injured. The park has since made arrangements for a guard with a gun to accompany people

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Jock
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Re: Buffalo Charges

Unread postby Jock » Mon Jun 20, 2011 3:20 pm

I thought you would like to read this article on an attach this week by a buffalo.

http://www.looklocal.co.za/looklocal/co ... by-buffalo
Cheers
Her Highness Jockelina


Life is not measured by the breaths you take, but by the moments that take your breath away

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Fatcat
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Re: Buffalo Charges

Unread postby Fatcat » Mon Jun 20, 2011 5:51 pm

Jock, thank you for that info as well - I really do not want to know about walking trails or people on foot - I would like to know about the car waiting for a 200+ strong herd crossing the road and one rogue bull starts charging at the car - I have been charged by one in my vehicle near Croc Bridge on a dirt road - I came up to a hairpin bend in the road and could see a lot of buffalo at the bend, but I could not see if they were in the road around the bend at all, so I inched closer - I am talking still about 20 metres away, when I suddenly heard snorting and a buffalo came charging at us from behind a bush - did not even know he was there - I managed to reverse fast enough and turn around - So what I actually want to know is , if I stayed stationery would he have continued charging at my car and has this happened to anyone ?
13 to 16 Dec 2014 - Lower Sabie
17 to 21 Dec 2014 - Maroela

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ndloti
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Re: Buffalo Charges

Unread postby ndloti » Tue Jun 21, 2011 8:53 am

I read on this forum about 3 yrs ago of an apparently docile buffalo colliding with a Sanparks game viewing vehicle when a part of the widespread heard were frightened for an unknown reason .
I suspect most buffalo collisions with a vehicle would be as a result of the animal fleeing due to being frightened as herd buffalo are not aggressive towards people on foot , though single males and old males in small groups are .
KNP is sacred. I am opposed to the modernisation of Kruger and from the depths of my soul long for the Kruger of yesteryear! 1000+km on foot in KNP incl 56 wild trails.200+ nights in the wildernessndloti-indigenous name for serval.


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