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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 20, 2009 2:35 pm 
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TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PART 1.

It has always been realised that the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK can never be self sufficient, development had to be to a certain extent be subsidised by the Government.

After the proclamation of the Sabi and Shingwedzi Reserves the area was recovering from the aftermath of the 2nd Anglo Boer War, very little funds were available from Government sources.

Soon after Unification the 1st World War broke out after 1918 there again was a lengthy recovery period which included the Depression during the period 1930 to 1933. In the meantime the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK was proclaimed by the Hertzog Government in 1926. Followed by the 2nd World War from 1939 to 1945, again followed by a lengthy recovery period.

Development in the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK had to rely on the income derived from tourism, trade, goodwill and meagre Government subsidies. The Management up to about 1950 were not very keen on developing Tourism too much and based it on a demand and supply system.

The first visitors to the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK had to supply their own accommodation, being tents, Later on some Park owned tents were made available to visitors, and even much later a few built rooms with beds only were made available. The facilities would only improve as the demand increased and funding was available.

The new Government elected in 1948 soon realised that the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK was a gem of a tourist destination for both local and foreign visitors. A plan was drawn up for increased tourism to our Country which included the development of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

Some detail of the different period facilities and development are given below:

1930

SKUKUZA:
Availability tents and 14 units.
PRETORIUSKOP:Four 20 ft rondavels constructed after completion now 8 units available.
SATARA:
Construction of three 20 ft and twelve 14 ft rondavels.
LOWER SABIE:
Five roomed Wood and Iron building repaired for tourist accommodation.
LETABA:
Twelve 16 ft rondavels completed.
BALULE:
Six 14 ft rondavels built.
SHINGWEDZI:
Nil..
PAFURI:
Nil.
TSENDE:
Nil.
PUNDA MARIA:
Nil..
OLIFANTS GORGE:
3 Huts completed.
CROCODILE BRIDGE:
Eight 14 ft rondavels completed.
NWANETSI:
Nil.
MALELANE:
Four 20 ft Rondavels were built.
MALOPENE:
Nil
RABELAIS:
One hut completed.

1931

SKUKUZA:
Additional tents and 6 new 20 foot rondavels.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Opened to tourists throughout the year all other comps only for six months per year.
SATARA:welve huts added Cottage tents provided. Willis & Co. opened a store and undertook camp management.
LOWER SABIE:
Rest house proved unsuccessful and now used as Ranger’s quarters.
BALULE:
Willis & Co supervised the construction of the Olifants River pontoon.
OLIFANTS GORGE:
Two more huts completed.
RABELAIS:
Two huts completed.

1932

SKUKUZA:
An ablution block with 4 baths and 4 showers was built, electric lighting for dining- areas
Separate facilities were provided for Asians.
SATARA:
Separate facilities provided for Asians, this proved unsuccessful and the facility was later transferred to Balule.
LETABA:
Store opened by Willis & Co.
PUNDA MARIA:
Bath room erected.
RABELAIS:
Small camp completed.

1933

SKUKUZA:
Preparation work for the construction of huts replacing the cottage tents commenced.
Building of an ablution block and a larger dining- room commenced.
A camp consisting of large cottage tents was provided for Asians however these were only used on two occasions.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Tourist Officer appointed.
SATARA:
Ablution erected.
LETABA:
Bathrooms erected.
BALULE:
Cottage tent Camp available for Asians – never used.
SHINGWEDZI:
Tent camp erected.
TSENDE:
A small temporary camp was built but later in the year pulled down and re-erected at the Ranger’s quarters at Shingwedzi.
PUNDA MARIA:
First additional wattle and daub huts completed. Ranger Coetzer built the first at this camp.
Store opened and supervised by Mr. and Mrs. Hope of the Louis Trichardt Garage co.
MALOPENE:
Small camp built.

1934

SKUKUZA:
Stevenson Hamilton commented that upon the completion of the additions contemplated for SKUKUZA, that camp would have reached it’s maximum size and capacity without becoming too unwieldy to manage and will not bear any further enlargement.
PRETORIUSKOP:
First Camp superintendent appointed and the catering facilities seemed increasingly
PUNDA MARIA:
New line of terraced huts each with 3 rooms built behind the first row of huts.
MALOPENE:
Unspecified additions made.
RABELAIS:
Unspecified additions made.

1935

SKUKUZA:
New dining- room and lounge completed as well as an additional 18 huts built from hollow blocks completed- 144 beds available.
PRETORIUSKOP:
50 New beds purchased.
LETABA:
Forty eight rondavels and 12 Knap huts completed.
SHINGWEDZI:
First 3 thatched huts with 3 rooms each erected, dining huts and quarters for attendants. Total of 36 new beds available.
Nil.
CROCODILE BRIDGE:
Six Knap houses erected and dining room and bathrooms completed.

1936

SKUKUZA:
Dining room and Post Office now built.
PRETORIUSKOP:
New Camp completed by contractor.
SATARA:
New dining room built and hot water installed.
LOWER SABIE:
Three 6 roomed rectangular huts erected.
OLIFANTS GORGE:
Two of the 1930 huts replaced.
MALELANE:
Three new huts and new quarters for the attendant were erected.

1937

SKUKUZA:
Major F. Struben donated 200 pounds for the construction of a guest cottage. The guest cottage was completed. And was intended for important guests.
SATARA:
Selby huts fitted with windows.
LOWER SABIE:
New camp opened to public, a dining room 16 huts and 4 bathrooms completed.
MALELANE:
Three hut block groups each with 2 to 3 rooms completed.

1938

SKUKUZA:
5 groups of huts with 2 rooms each completed.
The second guest house donated by the “Casa Mia” guest house in Pretoria was erected and tastefully furnished by outside donors.
5 two- roomed and 1 single room cottages were built.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Electric lights installed.
LOWER SABIE:
Huts wit 16 rooms completed as well as tea kiosk.
LETABA:
Laundry and drying rooms constructed.

1939

SKUKUZA:
The Selby huts were fitted with windows.
2 “Luxury Cottages’ each with 2 rooms were erected apart from the main camp.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Thirty 2 bed rondavels constructed costing 24 pounds each erected in old camp as well as laundry and drying room.
SHINGWEDZI:
Three 4 roomed bungalows built as well as a small dining room and 4 bathrooms.
PAFURI:
Tent camp opened.
PUNDA MARIA:
Some of the large rooms subdivided and one fur roomed bungalow built.

1940

SKUKUZA:
Laundry and drying facilities constructed.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Post office built.
PAFURI:
Camp closed to public due to problem with ticks.

1941

SKUKUZA:
4 Wood and Iron houses 28 ft X 14 ft bought from the Public Works Department were erected to accommodate servants and Asians, 2 for each.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Four 20 ft rondavels constructed
SATARA:
4 Wood and Iron houses 28 ft X 14 ft bought from the Public Works Department were erected for washing and drying room and blanket store.
PUNDA MARIA:
Tent camp opened again, four Wood and Iron houses bought from Public Works Department, erected, one was partially used as a bath room.

1942

SKUKUZA:
Construction of new ablution blocks as well as large bedding and mattress store as well as 2 new luxury huts and a double hut in the main camp completed.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Four 20 ft rondavels constructed
SHINGWEDZI:
Two 3 roomed huts built.

1943

SHINGWEDZI:
Electric fence erected around camp to keep Elephants out.

1944

BALULE:
Facility at SATARA for Asians moved to BALULE.

PAFURI:
Camp was flooded during summer rains and plagued by ticks in winter camp unsuitable and a new facility further upstream was suggested.

RABELAIS:
Camp not reopened due to poor state of huts. New camp along the Timbavati River proposed.

1945

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
Bathroom and water closets rebuilt.

1946

NWANETSI:
The old 1918 WNLA establishment was renovated and turned into the NWANETSI Private Camp.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 20, 2009 8:13 pm 
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TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PART 2

The Hoek commission was appointed in 1950 to investigate the Management and Operation of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

Recommendations :

There was a strong feeling that unlimited numbers of tourists could adversely affect the wildlife and therefore limits had to be set. A maximum table for daily tourists was set:

Between Crocodile and Sabie Rivers: 2048 % of total = 67.3.
Between Sabie and Olifants Rivers: 283 % of total = 9.3
Between Olifants and Letaba Rivers : 300 % of total = 9.9
Between Letaba and Shingwedzi Rivers : 260 % of total = 8.5
Between Shingwedzi and Levhuvu Rivers : 152 % of total= 5.0
Totalling 3043 % of total = 100

A restriction of seven days reservation during peak periods.
Light buses instead of cars could be used during the off periods.
Tours for school children could be arranged during the of season.
Differential tariffs for off and peak seasons could be instituted.

Rest Camps should be a matter of National Pride. Where rest camp facilities were not in keeping with the atmosphere of the Park, they should be demolished. “ A nation is judged on the pride it takes on it’s unique assets. In the same way the buildings in a National Park testify to the character of the Nation. Only national pride can claim national or International acclamation. For this reason, if for no other, it is felt that the planning and construction of buildings in a National Park should receive highly schooled attention”. It was suggested that the size of Rest Camps should be in accordance with the limits on the tourist numbers imposed in the various arias and specific sizes were recommended for each camp.

Recommendations were that :

PAFURI should consist of 10 family cottages. And 5 two bed huts.

PUNDA MARIA should be demolished and a new camp with a total of 100 beds be erected.

SHINGWEDZI the wattle and daub huts should gradually be replaced with properly built huts in the same style and atmosphere as the existing. The trading premises were up to standard, all corrugated roofs were to be replaced by thatch. A camp with 300 beds was envisaged.

SHANGONI a camp with 100 beds and a small shop was suggested once a dam had been built in the Shingwedzi River.

LETABA the camp was to be enlarged to 180 beds and the Knap huts and ablution block and the trading premises should be replaced.

MALOPENE the entire camp had to be rebuilt to contain 24 beds.

OLIFANTS RIVER a 50 bed camp should be built in the Naboomkop area for visitors who “only wanted to stay in the Low Veldt for a while during the winter”.

SATARA the trading premises and the old bath room block should be replaced, a number of self contained huts were planned and the camp expanded to contain 300 beds.

NWANETSI the camp should be demolished and rebuilt wit accommodation for 24 visitors.

RABELAIS should be demolished and a new camp with self contained huts and 24 beds should be built in the Kingfisherspruit area.

SKUKUZA the camp was built with very little planning as most others. The 12 Knap huts were to be demolished as well as three rondavels and the trading premises and the Wood and Iron buildings at the entrance gate, the camp should have 400 beds.

PRETORIUSKOP all clay building were to be removed except for the two original huts and the original bathroom which should be retained and preserved as monuments to the erstwhile rest camp construction wit the appropriate inscriptions. Many other building and structures were to be removed and new water tanks with sufficient capacity wee to be erected. The camp was to have 400 beds.

MALELANE only 5 huts and the new Vukani experimental hut were worth retaining. The remainder had to be removed and a camp with 100 beds and a trading facility built.

CROCODILE BRIDGE the Knap huts should be removed and a camp with 100 beds built.

LOWER SABI the camp was to be scrapped entirely once the CROCODILE BRIDGE was completed.

BALULE was to be used as a construction camp.

GORGE was to be scrapped entirely.

In 1947 there were 1150 beds in tents and the policy of fewer tents more huts was accepted in 1951, tented accommodation was to made available in case of emergency only.

Administration:

Dissatisfaction was expressed at the employment of pensioners in administering tourist facilities. Senior University students could be employed in the seasonal camps.

Permanent camps should be run by permanent staff, and where possible by intelligent honourable young couples from whom the more senior administrative staff could eventually be recruited, they would then have a future that will depend on their efficiency.

Large rest camps would now have a camp reservation and permit issuing facility and a separate office where the married couple could handle the camp administration. The couples could handle both functions at the smaller camps.

Lay out of Rest Camps.

The layouts of rest camps had to be accordance wit esthetical and cultural values, it was recommended that the untidy tent camps be removed.
An atmosphere of crowding in rest camps should be avoided and huts were to be spaced further apart than had previously been the case.
Provision had to be made for dust free roads, traffic control, cooking facilities, refrigeration facilities, the positioning of communal conveniences, servant’s quarters as well as recreation and amusement facilities for children.
There had to be sufficient water supply.
All exotic trees in rest camps were to be gradually replaced by name plated indigenous trees.
Provision had to be made to screen films.

Accommodation:

Two bed huts were considered optimal and beds more than this had to be reduced accordingly.
Verandas and gauzed windows and doors were considered essential.
All huts had to be supplied with hot and cold water to a wash basin, and a number had to be fitted out with a toilet and a shower.
Comfortable hut furniture was essential e.g. hygienic rubber mattresses, wooden chairs, and tables instead of collapsible iron tables and chairs as well as sisal mats for the cement floors.
Huts had to be supplied with bedding, pillows and towels, as well as soap and drinking glasses, all of which had to be included in the accommodation tariff.

Facilities for Different Cultural Groups:

Separate camps, adjoining those for whites were suggested for other race groups, at Pretoriuskop, Crocodile Bridge, Letaba and Punda Maria. These camps must have the same atmosphere as those for whites and must ensure that different cultural groups are well separated.

Rest Camp facilities:

Refrigeration facilities:
Freezing and cooling facilities in all the rest camps were regarded as essential so that tourists could be provided with ice, fresh meat, butter, vegetables and fruit.

Meals and Refreshments:

To avoid tourists being tied down by fixed times, it was suggested that braaivleis and cold salads be available throughout the day, and that a standard meal be offered at a fixed time in the evenings. It was mentioned that the public would pay a higher price for good service, provided that the derived profits be used for the benefits of the Parks and not for the enrichment of private individual.

Liquor:

The Hoek report was of opinion that malt and wine should be made available. It was the abuse and not the possession of liquor hat was offensive.

Curios:

In addition to fresh produce South African Curios could also be sold in the shops. Items of tribal custom should be given priority; here the assistance of the Department of Native affairs should be sought. This would encourage home industry by the local tribes.

Service Stations:

Service stations for minor repairs oil changes and general servicing as well as a quick washing service, were regarded as essential for all of the larger rest camps.

Medical Services:

Clinics were suggested at the larger ret camps, these should be manned by trained staff. Standard first aid equipment could be provided on advice from the Medical Board.

As a result of the Hoek commission the Board decided in 1953 that:

The distribution of beds in permanent accommodation would be as follows:

PRETORIUSKOP 360
MALELANE 120
CROCODILE BRIDGE 52
LOWER SABIE 250
SKUKUZA 600
SATARA 200
ORPEN 26
OLIFANTS 200
LETABA 330
MALOPENE 16
SHINGWEDZI 300
PUNDA MARIA 120
NWANETSI 8
TOTAL 582

400 campers would be allowed to bring the total up to 3000.

Policing the Park:

Due to poor behaviour by visitors, the Board resolved in 1956 that:

Stricter control over visitors be implemented especially at water points.
Two Temporary Rangers be appointed to assist with law enforcement.
The Punda Maria – Pafuri road be closed to traffic after 13:00 daily.
The wearing of uniforms by officials was accepted in principle.
A pamphlet detailing the regulations would be issued to all tourists entering the Park.

Not a Commercial Recreation Resort:

The Board resolved during Dec. 1957 that:

With the exception of SKUKUZA and PRETORIUSKOP no rest camp should have more than 350 beds.
Accommodation must be simple and appropriate with the requirements of the average tourist, and having that which fringes on the ultra luxurious should be avoided.
Rules and regulations must be applied stringently and any tourist who deliberately transgresses and disturbs the tranquillity should be apprehended and informed that he is not welcome in the Park.
Tourists should at all times be reminded of the rules and regulations and it should be standard practise at all film shows and educational sessions to devote a part of the event to these this matters.
The availability of goods in the shops should in the first place be aimed at supplying public with necessities at reasonable prices.
Meals in restaurants should be typical South African by nature. No undue effort should be made to get tourists to associate sociably in restaurants; such association should rather take place at the campfires.


Accommodation available in 1958.

The distribution of beds in permanent accommodation was as follows:

PRETORIUSKOP 360 with 15 camping sites
MALELANE 120
CROCODILE BRIDGE 50
LOWER SABIE 350 with 10 camping sites.
SKUKUZA 500 with 30 camping sites
SATARA 200 with 15 camping sites.
ORPEN 25
LETABA 350 with 15 camping sites
MALOPENE 15
SHINGWEDZI 300 with 15 camping sites.
PUNDA MARIA 120 with 5 camping sites.
NWANETSI 10
Balule 30
Gorge 20
TOTAL 2450 with 105 camping sites.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 20, 2009 8:26 pm 
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Tourism Development Part 3.

Summarised the developments were:

1946

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
New Bathrooms, toilets and tourist officers quarters were built
MALELANE:
Additions to the tourist quarters included a bathroom, 2 shower rooms, a shaving room and a ladies wash room.
PAFURI:
A new camp with tented accommodation was built, 35 tents were provided.
NWANETSI:
The old WNLA complex was renovated and turned into a rest camp.


1947

LETABA:
A laundry was built.
GORGE:
One wattle and daub hut was built.
PAFURI:
Two bathrooms were added.
LOWER SABIE:
A new kitchen was added.
SHINGWEDZI:
An AA hut was built as well as a hut for tourists, which was donated by the AA. The flat roof was removed from the tea room and offices and replaced by a pitched roof.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Four new luxury huts with water borne sewerage were erected.
SKUKUZA:
The dining room was rebuilt; one luxury hut and one trench style latrine and a water borne sewerage system were added.

1948

NUMBI GATE:
The name Pretoriuskop Entrance was changed to NUMBI Gate.
MALELANE:
A new AA rondavels was built.
LETABA:
A new AA rondavels was built.
LOWER SABIE:
A new ablution block replaced the collapsible iron units.
PRETORIUSKOP:
A new bathroom block was built.
SKUKUZA:
Three new luxury cottages were built.

1949

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
A small wood and thatch tea room was built.
PUNDA MARIA:
A block of 3 bedrooms (wattle and daub) was built to replace the building burnt down due to a lightning strike.
LOWER SABIE:
Plans for a new camp on the northern banks of the Sabie River costing 62088 pounds with fitment estimated at a further 15000 pounds were shelved
SKUKUZA:
The first experimental kitchen with three stoves and a grill around a common chimney proved very successful.

1950

PRETORIUSKOP:
Twenty 2 bed rondavels each with sewerage, shower and washbasin were built as well as two family cottages.

1951

LETABA:
A new ablution block with bathrooms, showers and water borne sewerage was added.
LOWER SABIE:
The old kitchen complex was rebuilt and included a pantry, dining room and a shop.
Six 2 bedded rondavels with sewerage, shower and washbasin was built as well as 19 ordinary two bed huts and a new ablution block.
SATARA:
Four 2 bed rondavels with sewerage, shower and washbasin were built as well as twelve 2 bed rondavels and a new ablution block.
SHINGWEDZI:
New trading premises, including a spacious dining room, pantry and kitchen were built. The old dining room was converted into a shop and a store room.
SKUKUZA:
A new luxury cottage (temporarily allocated to the Tourist Manager) was built.

1952

NUMBII GATE:
New living quarters for the Tourist Officer were constructed.
The new entrance gate replaced the old broken down Iron Gate and a carved wooden tortoise reminded tourists of the 25 mph. speed limit.
MALELANE:
The Vukani hut donated by the daughter of Harold Trollope in the memory of her father was erected. It consisted of 2 semi detachable double rooms and a 8 ft veranda
SATARA:
A new ablution block and one double self contained rondavels were built. All pit latrines were now eliminated.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Twenty self contained huts of burnt brick were built. The Tourist Officer’s quarters were improved with the view of appointing a permanent Tourist Officer for the camp. A laundry and three kitchen units with washing sinks with hot and cold water were built.
SKUKUZA:
Water borne sewerage was installed in five family cottages. Professor Hoek stopped the erection of 75 double huts approved by the Board in 1951.

1953

PUNDA MARIA:
The corrugated iron toilets at the camp entrance were replaced by a new wood and thatch building
LETABA:
Tent accommodation was provided for other race groups.
LOWER SABIE:
Temporary wood and iron ablution blocks were erected to cope with the increased tourist inflow after 60 tents were transferred from Pretoriuskop.
Thirteen2 ordinary 2 bed rondavels and three 2 bed self contained rondavels were constructed.
SATARA:
Structures for electricity supply were commenced.
PRETORIUSKOP:
Tent accommodation was provided for other race groups.
Two family cottages (occupied by the Tourist Officer and Assistant Biologist Mr. Manie v/d Shijff) were built as well as four additional kitchen units.
ORPEN:
Construction of this new camp replacing Rabelais commenced.
SKUKUZA:
Tent accommodation was provided for other race groups.
Work started on the new trading premises with spacious veranda and lounge where tourists could get together after the gates had closed.
A more appropriate laundry was also built.

1954

MALELANE:
Three roofs damaged by wind were replaced.
SATARA:
Structures for electricity supply were completed.
ORPEN:
Construction of the camp with 26 beds in ten 2 bedded and two 3 bedded huts each with a small veranda, a food cupboard and built in clothes cupboards was completed.
SKUKUZA:
The new restaurant and shop complex was completed.

1956

LETABA:
Structures for electric lighting plants were commenced.
LOWER SABIE:
Structures for electric lighting plants were commenced.
SHINGWEDZI:
Structures for electric lighting plants built.
A memorial hut for Board Member Brian Key was donated by the WILDLIFE PROTECTION SOCIETY.
PRETORIUSKOP:
A swimming pool, cloak rooms and a kiosk sponsored by the Rembrandt Tobacco Co. were built. A second electric generator was purchased and a building to house it was built.
SKUKUZA:
Construction of 36 new rest huts, 45 ordinary huts and 4 self contained huts, 2 new bathroom blocks, 4 kitchen units, a new power station, an additional refrigeration room, a new water supply scheme and 2 reservoirs.

1957

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
The building of the laundry commenced
LETABA:
Structures for electric lighting plants were completed.
LOWER SABIE:
Structures for electric lighting plants were completed
SHINGWEDZI:
The administrative garage was enlarged and a spare parts store room was built.
SKUKUZA:
The shop and trading centre were altered to accommodate a cafeteria and reception office. Changes to the kitchen and the restaurant were started and the additional tourist accommodation was completed. The tents were finally removed.

1958

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
The building of the laundry was completed.
LOWER SABIE:
A new store room with a concrete roof as a water tank stand was erected.
OLIFANTS:
The site for the new Olifants Rest camp was selected in line with the 1953 Board decision to replace the old Olifants Camp (Balule)
PRETORIUSKOP:
Two buildings were converted to dormitories, with dining room, for groups of school children. A new enlarged power station was built outside the camp. Twenty six new huts were built and the restaurant was enlarged.

1959

PRETORIUSKOP:
Electrification of the camp was completed.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:31 pm 
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Location: Johannesburg - where they cut down trees and name streets after them.
Very interesting, gmlsmit! :D

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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 20, 2009 10:38 pm 
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Location: another national park.. in England
This is absolutelt fascinating :clap: gmlsmit thank you

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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 21, 2009 12:28 pm 
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Tourism Development Part 4.

Knobel’s Philosophy as set out during 1961 to 1963.

“conservationists, especially national park administrators must take cognisance of the two main duties placed squarely on their shoulders”:

Conservation, which implies and demands the act of conserving the wilderness area in a natural state.

Humanity, which implies providing access to conservation areas for the public’s benefit, advantage and enjoyment.

To find a compromise between these two main responsibilities, various guidelines for the use of the areas such as national parks, by visitors, were outlined. It was pointed out that the major values of conservation were to be found in their scientific value, economic viability and cultural heritage. Despite the importance of the scientific value of such areas, conservation had little chance of succeeding without some form of economic return. In this respect it was stated that nature conservation was not intended nature against man, but also to work for the benefit of man.

Such areas must as far as possible kept free form human interference. This could imply their support for the exclusion of visitors from national parks, large tracts of land could not be set aside for scientific purposes only and that although national parks must be used for scientific research and this constitutes a major function of the Board, the scientific value of a national park is not its most important value.

It is true to state that any country, by encouraging tourists, also exports their tourist attractions, because in this way foreign currency is attracted. The advantage of this export is that it is never exhausted and it brings not only foreign currency but also better understanding.

The economic value of national parks was enormous as tourists did not expect unnecessary luxuries and consequently relatively little infrastructure had to be provided.

The most important value of a national park appears to be its recreational value, not in the narrow sense of physical recreation but in the true sense of the word which includes spiritual, intellectual and physical renewal.

The challenge for tourism was, therefore, to find the most acceptable compromise between the maintenance of the pristine attributes of the natural assets of conservation areas and the provision of the most rewarding and beneficial experience for visitors.

To achieve this there were certain essentials to be considered:

A sound scientific knowledge of the natural and ecological assets of an area was required, as this was a prerequisite for its scientific management and optimal use.

All visitor amenities in conservation areas should be managed directly by the controlling body. This would enhance the development of tourist facilities in a way compatible with the natural features of the conservation areas.

The national parks had to control the following :

The number of visitors allowed to enter a particular area at any given time.
Rest camps and accommodation.
Roads.
Restaurants.
Sanitary and hygiene standards.
Lighting

Knobel’s recommendations made to the Board in 1961:

Any funds that became available in the next five years should be spent on replacing tents with huts without conveniences.

Long drop latrines should be replaced with waterborne sewerage systems where water supplies permit and should be placed in smaller strategically place localities instead of large central ablutions.\

Fines should be imposed on day visitors found in the park after closing hours.

Special attention should be paid to cooking and barbequing facilities, by providing wood fires in specially designed areas to ensure the minimum use of wood and the maximum conservation of heat.

Everything possible must be done to keep rest camps s simple as possible and not to create facilities that would attract tourists for reasons other that the appreciation of nature.

The Brynard philosophy- 1962 :

By the proclamation of a national park, the animal and the vegetation the inviolate portion of the park. Any thought or deed which ignores is doomed to fail the test of time.

It must be accepted that a national park initially created for the protection of nature, ahs no right to existence if it is not maintained for the enjoyment of, and is not accessible to the nation. This statement is in keeping with the views of the London Convention of 1933.

Somewhere between the two apparently conflicting poles of nature conservation and human enjoyment, a course of compromise between must be followed on condition that a healthy balance is maintained. For this it is important to accept that nature conservation does not imply that man, where necessary, may not intervene, just as human enjoyment does not mean exploitation.

He cautioned that any future planning and expansion of tourist facilities, the maintenance of an acceptable balance is priority.
He made a strong plea for the expansion of information and interpretive services.

He did not object to the expansion of tourist roads, provided they were judiciously planned to harmonise with wit ecological conditions and not necessarily lead to an increase in tourist numbers.

The future must be approached with great confidence as the park is conserved primarily for its cultural, aesthetic, and scientific values. However attractive it may seem, financial considerations may never receive precedence at the cost of these values. We would otherwise be responsible to the nation for having exploited its greatest single cultural heritage.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Aug 24, 2009 10:51 am 
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Tourism Development Part 5.

Provision for different race groups.

The National Parks Board had to abide by the Laws of the Country, including those which required separate facilities for different race groups.
There were 54 beds available for visitors other than whites, in 1960 being 12 beds in tents at Pretoriuskop, 21 beds in tents at Skukuza, 2 rooms with 3 beds each at Punda Maria and 15 beds at Balule.
The following recommendations were submitted to the March 1960 Board Meeting:
Rest Camps for other race groups should be built, no further than 0.5 miles from the camps for whites at Pretoriuskop, Lower Sabie and Punda Maria.
All the rest camps should have two or three tents available for servants of other races accompanying visitors.
Picnic sites demarcated by white stones should be established adjoining those for whites at Tshokwane, Nwanetsi, Nshawu and Pafuri. A fenced picnic site adjoining the one for whites should be built at the Nkuhlu picnic site.
Provision should be made 10 motor cars of day visitors ( 3 at Pretoriuskop, 2 each at Crocodile Bridge and Malopene and 1 each at Malelane, Orpen and Punda Maria.
These proposals were approved by the Board.

The proposed rest camp for other races at Pretoriuskop.
In March 1961 the planning of a proposed rest camp at Pretoriuskop for race groups other than white, was considered by the Board and a number of points were noted:
The proposed camp had to be close to the existing camp, to avoid duplicating services.
Accommodation and facilities would be planned in such a way that the facilities for different race groups would be separate from one another. The Board believed that Asians, Coloureds and Blacks “Preferred” to be accommodated separately.
Tented accommodation alone was not sufficient, especially for international visitors.
One shop would be available to all groups until the increase in demand justified separate shops.
Donations from communities of races other than white for the provision of facilities would be accepted.
There were no conditions regarding privileges by way of preferential bookings.

The separate camp never materialised but an area for cooking and ablution facilities for visiting black school children was provided.

4 huts and ablution facilities were built were built for the use by separate race groups at Skukuza and Lower Sabie, during 1963/1964.

The following facilities were available by 1970.

Lower Sabie 4 huts with 4 beds each.
Skukuza 4 huts with 4 beds each.
Balule 5 huts with 3 beds each.
All huts had tent accommodation available for servants accompanying white tourists.
The Diplomatic accommodation, a very high quality luxury facility was completed at Skukuza in 1969, referred to as the “Dip Camp” was also made available for visitors of races other than white.

Mr. H v/d Veen Manager Tourism and Administration recommended in 1970 that: “Sufficient accommodation and facilities should be provided for the different race groups, both tourists and servants”.

It was stated at the December 1973 Board Meeting that: “ the demand for accommodation for the different colour group sin certain parks I on the increase and that it could be expected that there would be a further increase in years to come” The Kruger National Park as well as some others was to be assessed.
It was also said that: ” the different departments of state all seem to expect that separate facilities be provided for Indians, Coloureds and Bantu. Pressure is already by these groups for separate facilities for each group.
The dilemma was: “ should the Board decide on a policy of providing separate facilities for each group it should also be decided whether such separate facilities should be provided in the existing camps for ‘whites only’, or whether these separate groups should be accommodated in different camps separately”. To complicate the matter further it was stated that: “ the demand from the various groups is such at this stage it will be most economical to provide separate facilities and yet it would appear that it is not only expected by the groups themselves, but also by the Government Departments”.
A meeting was held with the Prime Minister and the Minister of Agriculture in 1974 and it was reported that at the March 1974 Board meeting: “it was generally that a National Park belonged to all the citizens of the country and that only the National Parks Act was applicable in a national Park. It was therefore undesirable to make the Group Areas Act applicable to national parks.
In spite of the above policy statement it was pointed out that the Board was dependent on its own revenue for the expansion of tourist facilities. It was made clear that the Board could only create facilities that were financially viable. It was felt that demand by people other than white for facilities in national parks was sporadic and it would be uneconomical to provide such facilities. “Only the facilities at Skukuza and Lower Sabie were up to standard”. It was also stated that facilities in all other national parks for races other than white were on a communal basis”. In the Kruger National Park facilities would have to be for the three race groups, except in the northern areas where “only required for blacks”. The demand from Coloureds was minimal and they could be accommodated with Indians.
It was resolved that: “ the Director should compile a priority list for submission to the Board of the facilities for Non-Europeans on the basis of temporary facilities within European rest camps as a transitional stage until such time that separate rest camps could eventually be erected in such areas where there would be a demand for them”.

With reference to the above resolution, the following Nixon report was compiled in 1974 highlighting the following:

Important entry gates such as Numbi and Orpen had either poor or no ablution facilities.
Higher quality accommodation of modern standards with conveniences such as air conditioning had to be provided on a moderate scale for the more affluent visitors.
Most huts had four beds, while the demand was for smaller units.
Little attention had been paid to cooking and restaurant facilities. Dining rooms were available at Skukuza and Olifants rest camps, the current situation that visitors other that white were served their meals in the court yards of the white restaurants, did not satisfy anyone, white or black.
Recommended for additional facilities for visitors other than white in the Kruger National Park were:

A=Blacks, B=Indians and Coloureds.
2X2 (2) = 2 units with 2 beds each with space for a 3rd on request.
SKUKUZA:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: A-2X2 (3), B-4X2 (3).
Max beds (A=B): A-6, B12.
Beds in tents: nil.
Showers: B-4
Wash basins: B-4
Toilet units:B-4
Camp sites: B-6
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Kitchen/ dining.

PRETORIUSKOP:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: A-2X2 (3), B-2X3 (3).
Max beds (A+B): A-6, B-6.
Beds in tents: nil.
Showers: A-1
Wash basins: A-1
Toilet units: A-1.
Camp sites: A-3, B-3.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp kitchen.

LOWER SABIE:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: A-1X2 (3), B-3X2 (3)
Max beds (A=B): A- 3, B- 9.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: B-2.
Wash basins: B-2.
Toilet units:B-2.
Camp sites: B-3.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Kitchen/dining.

OLIFANTS:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: Nil.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Nil.

SATARA:
Standard huts: A-1X2(3).
Huts with conveniences: B-4X2(3).
Max beds (A=B): A- 6, B-12.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: A-2
Wash basins: Nil.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp kitchen.

LETABA:
Standard huts: A-2X2 (3).
Huts with conveniences: A- 1X2 (3), 2X2 (3).
Max beds (A=B):A- 9, B-6.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: A-2.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-3.
Camp sites: A-3.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp Kitchen.

SHINGWDZI:
Standard huts: A- 2X2 (3).
Huts with conveniences: A- 1X2 (3).
Max beds (A=B): A-9.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: A-2.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-3.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Cooking facility.

PUNDA MARIA:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: A-3, B-3.
Showers: A-1.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-2.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Cooking facility.

CROCODILE BRIDGE:
Standard huts:A-1X2 (3)
Huts with conveniences: B-1X2 (3)
Max beds (A=B): A-3, B-3.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: A-1.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-2.
Camp sites: A -2.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp kitchen.

MALELANE:
Standard huts: A-1X2 (3).
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): A-3.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: A-1.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-2.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp Kitchen.

ORPEN:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: A-2.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Nil.

BALULE:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: Nil.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Camp kitchen.

NWANETSI:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: Nil.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Nil.

PHALABORWA:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: Nil.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Nil.


NUMBI:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: A-2.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Nil.

TSHOKWANE:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: A-4.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Cooking facility. Nil.

PAFURI:
Standard huts: Nil.
Huts with conveniences: Nil.
Max beds (A=B): Nil.
Beds in tents: Nil.
Showers: Nil.
Wash basins: A-4.
Toilet units: Nil.
Camp sites: Nil.
Camp kitchen or kitchen/dining room: Cooking facility.Nil.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Aug 24, 2009 1:23 pm 
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Tourism Development Part 6.

Facilities for Indians.

The Department for Indian Affairs submitted a letter to the Board in November 1974, lamenting the inadequacy of facilities for Indians in the Kruger Park. It was pointed out that the accommodation at Skukuza was cut off from the rest of the camp, and its conveniences after the camp gates closed at night. It was also pointed out that: no toilets or other amenities are provided for Indians at other rest camps and that they are forced to use the toilets of the Bantu servants there, which are invariably of an unsatisfactory condition. The only other rest camp that is reserved for “non whites” only is Balule.
As Indians experience difficulty in obtaining reservations, representation should be made for the erection of additional cottages for Indians as the existing accommodation was totally inadequate, and also for the provision of better facilities such as kitchen and dining room facilities.
Subsequently the Board decided that:
“An opening is made in the fence at Skukuza rest camp so that everyone could have access to the shop in the European rest camp after the gates had been closed for the night.
The following facilities be erected for other race groups.
A picnic place with the necessary ablution facilities at Satara.
6 Huts at Letaba and 3 at Skukuza.
Ablution facilities at Tshokwane, Shingwedzi, Punda Maria and Pafuri.”

The following facilities were provided:

1974/1975.
Tshokwane – provided an ablution block.
Pafuri – ablution facilities provided.
1975/1976.
Skukuza - 3 huts with conveniences added to the existing 4.
Letaba – 6 huts with conveniences completed.
Punda Maria- toilets completed.
1976/1977.
Skukuza – work on ding hall completed in 1977.
Satara - Picnic site and ablution facilities completed.
1977/1978.
Skukuza – 4 older huts provided with conveniences.
Lower Sabie – 2 huts with conveniences added to the existing 4.
Satara – 4 huts with conveniences completed.
Shingwedzi – ablution facilities completed.

Due to increased demand for facilities for other races groups other than white, the following the following was recommended to the Board in September 1980.

National parks were created for the use of all race groups and not exclusively for whites. It should be accepted that nature conservation, like sport, did not belong in the political arena.
“All rest camps where there were sufficient facilities (restaurants and huts with conveniences), be declared ‘international rest camps’ These were Skukuza, Pretoriuskop, Lower Sabie, Satara, Olifants, Letaba, Shingwedzi and Punda Maria.
That facilities be provided within the five year plan where these facilities did not exist, the camps involved were Crocodile Bridge, Orpen and Malelane. All huts were to be provided with conveniences including cooking facilities, where they did not exist.
All signs concerning and differentiating between race groups were to be removed.
Signs indicating a reservation of entrance would be erected at entrances, reception offices, restaurants and swimming pools would be erected to maintain good order.
Camping and caravan sites allocated to other race groups would be provided with separate ablution facilities.
Heavily utilised picnic spots such as Tshokwane and Nkuhlu would be provided with alternative ablution facilities.
Black staff, who wished to do so could eat in the restaurants, provided the booked in advance.
Suitable facilities such as community halls and kiosks should be provided in all the larger staff quarters for races other than white.
The new rules in connection with the facilities and care of other race groups who visit the KNP should be clearly stated and announced by means of an appropriate country-wide information campaign, but not with any unnecessary fanfare”.

The Board’s response was:

Members of other race groups who book in advance are to be treated as in the past.
Visitors of other race groups who book in groups should be accommodated to the best of the responsible officer’s ability, and ablution facilities as soon as possible where provided.
A submission had to be made to the Board of the present and the expected numbers of visitors from the different groups.
The submission to the Board in November 1980 indicated that bed occupancy increased from 6783 in 1976 to 7371 in 1980 and entrance fees paid increased from 14733 to 18967 for the same period.
The resolutions passed in September and November 1980 were aimed at alleviating the most urgent needs at that time. Clarity was required regarding the sharing of accommodation, ablution and restaurant facilities between race groups.

The following resolutions were passed in June 1981.

“International huts” should be allocated or constructed in more camps at the discretion of the Chief Director.
Restaurants should be opened to all races.
Equal facilities should be erected for different race groups wherever possible.
The principle of separation be adhered to, in order to prevent unnecessary friction.
Special facilities should be provided for bus groups and limitations on these groups should be strictly adhered to.
Any problems should be brought to the attention of the Board and reports on the progress made be submitted at each meeting.

In a report by the Minister of Environmental Affairs and Tourism in March 1986 submitted to the Board and accepted, it was mentioned that:

Because of their privileged status and greater financial resources whites have traditionally and from the earliest times been, and still are, the greatest supporters of the National parks. Contributions from them have, in various ways led to the expansion and development of the National parks as we know them today. It is felt by the Board, from letters received, opinion polls and personal discussions with members of the public, that there is a large percentage of whites who have a serious fear that they may be swamped by Non-Europeans.
With the above in mind, it must be accepted that the implementation of the Board’s policy regarding to the provision of facilities for people of colour in National Parks will be done with a large measure of circumspection, discretion, positive attitude and honesty.
It must be realised that the process is evolutionary by nature and that it will be adapted according to the needs of all race groups without flavouring or prejudicing the needs of one at the cost of the other.

The use of private camps were open to all.
The number of “international huts” had to be increased in line with demand.
No distinction by colour would be made as far as day visitors were concerned.
Swimming pools were open to all overnight visitors.
The evolutionary process rapidly developed into the opening of all facilities to all race groups and by the late 1980s the concept of “international huts” was abandoned. The restaurant/conference complex built at Skukuza in 1969 to cater for visitors, especially dignitaries, of race groups other than white referred to as the “Dip. Camp” was thereafter used for a variety of small or semi-private functions. The similar complex at Olifants was converted to the Nshawu guest cottage in 1991.

THESE POSTS ABOUT THE FACILITIES FOR OTHER RACE GROUPS CONTAIN MANY EXTRACTS FROM “THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK A HISTORY” , authored by Dr. Salomon Joubert.

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Aug 24, 2009 3:44 pm 
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Please keep the info coming I find it facinating . thank :D you

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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Sun Aug 30, 2009 5:32 pm 
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Location: Johannesburg - where they cut down trees and name streets after them.
Thank you! :D

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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Aug 31, 2009 6:47 pm 
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Excellent research and a thread wothwhile reading. Kindly give us more. What about the era after Salmon Joubert's history. And statistics covering the last 20 years? It will be interesting to compare the different eras.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Aug 31, 2009 6:53 pm 
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Thank you so much GMS.

This is a wonderful read.

Jane


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Wed Sep 16, 2009 12:47 pm 
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The introduction of the Makuleke Area into the Kruger National Park.

Section Ranger Mike English often went to the Pafuri / Makuleke in the company of Mr. Harold Mockford (Manager TEBA Pafuri), during the 1960s before the Makuleke clan moved out.

Mike was instructed by Mr. Dolf Brynard Head of the KNP, during 1968 to accompany a group of surveyors from the Department of the Surveyor General who were to survey the western border of the Makuleke area, also often in history referred to as the Pafuri Game Reserve.

The survey started on 26 Nov 1968, its purpose was to calculate the exact size of the Makuleke area as it was to be exchanged on a morgen for morgen basis after resettlement in an area in the northwest of the Shangoni section, then still part of the KNP, which would then be cut off from the KNP and handed to the Makuleke clan, and the evacuated area would become part of KRUGER.

Mike presumed that the boundary would follow the then existing western boundary of the Makuleke area, he also assumed that if there were any changes, the surveyors would be instructed accordingly.

Mike met the surveyors Messrs. Dennis Sheridan, Johnny Watson and Mr. Liebenberg at the confluence of the Mutali and the Levhuvu; he told them that if possible the boundary should be moved further westwards from the existing Makuleke western boundary so as to include the Nyavadi and Spokonyolo into the “exchange area”. This would then result in the whole of the pan system along the total length of the flood plains a wetland area on the southern banks of the Great Limpopo River being under the National Parks Board control. That would then be from the old Mabiligwe Native Recruiting Company (NRC) to the confluence at Crooke’s Corner.

Including the Nyavadi and Spokonyolo pans area would alleviate the problems that would certainly arise when Hippos from outside the exchange area were fenced of from the pans by Elephant proof fences, as the mentioned pans were historically part of their migration route. The fence was in accordance with an agreement between the State Veterinarian Departments of South Africa and the then Rhodesia.

The inclusion of the pans would also from an ornithological point of view be very satisfactory.

The inclusion of the two pans would also ensure their complete protection in the future.

Mike plotted the proposed fence on the 1:50 000 map, and tried to contact Mr. Brynard by radio, unfortunately they were in a low lying area and there was no contact. The surveyors thought it was a good idea and the agreed to survey a provisional line.

When Mike was able to make contact with the head of KNP he explained what he had in mind and asked for the necessary permission to carry on further along the line to the Great Limpopo Rive passing approximately 350 metres east of the Mabiligwe NRC camp.

Mr. Brynard replied that he needed about ten minutes to check his map and consider the implications. The reply came that the proposal would require too much of the Shangoni Section would be lost in exchange and they were not to continue. Mike was very disappointed but instructions were instructions . . . .

Mike made an alternative proposal that they then head for Mabyeni kop and the Limpopo River, passing 1.2km to the west of Spokonyolo pan, parallel to the old Makuleke western boundary. This was agreed to.

This would at least include the Spokonyolo pan in the new area and an additional 2370 hectares more than the original Makuleke / Pafuri Game Reserve.

Mike remained with the surveyors who had insisted that he be their guest at their camp at Klein Tshipise.

The Limpopo beacon was fixed on late afternoon 26 November 1968. It was on this new boundary that the area destined for exchange was calculated. The same sized area was cut off from Shangoni in the KNP and handed to the Makuleke people in exchange.

Section Ranger Mike English still had his dream about including the Nyavadi pan into the KNP. He often discussed it with the new Head of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, Dr. Tol Pienaar; Mike felt that the then Department of Bantu affairs still owed the National Parks Board a sizable area for the ground which was conceded to them in the 1960s on the south western border, this was when the Selati railway line was moved out of the KNP and re-routed outside the KNP. Two large pieces in the south were cut off to accommodate the new route, one near Numbi Gate and te other where the Matsulu town is.

Dr. Pienaar tried to have the Nyavadi pan area included into the KNP area but to no avail, Mike was eventually told that the discussion had reached its end . . . .

Ken Newman stayed with the English family during March 1975, while doing research for one of his birding books. Mike took him to the Nyavadi pan area to check the breeding progress of the Open Billed Storks and explained his ideas to him. Ken mentioned that Dr. Luffi Martini (then Chairman of the Wildlife Society) and member of the National Parks Board had mentioned to him that there shortly was a Board Meeting at the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Ken would mention this to him on his return to Johannesburg, should Mike wanted him to, of course Mike agreed.

Mike prepared a copy of a 1:50 000 map and indicating the current situation and also his idea.

Ken handed to map to Dr. Martini for submission to the Board Meeting. The Minister of Bantu Affairs gave his approval. Dr. Pienaar informed Mike of the Board decision.

Frans Laubscher the Parks Engineer and Soekie Schoeman the Park’s Surveyor flew up by helicopter on 11 November 1975 and Mike indicated the western boundary beacons as marked by the surveyors and placed fixed and erected during 1968. Soekie Schoeman shortly afterwards started with the opening up of the remaining portion of the proposed new boundary.

Soon afterwards the local Venda Chief complained to the State Veterinary Officer Mr. Willem Steyn, who looked after the veterinary fence from the Mutali confluence southwards, that the KNP people were encroaching onto his land and they were to stop with the opening up operation. The Section Ranger told the Veterinary Official that they had permission from the Minister, and that his instructions were given by Chief Director and no one else.

Mike received an urgent radio message on 24 November 1975 from SKUKUZA after 3.75 km had been opened and was told to temporarily stop. The Commissioner of Venda Mr. Daan de Wet-Nel had contacted Head office and asked them to stop until after further discussions had taken place.

At the discussions it was decided that the land in the South cut of from the KNP in the south and given to one ethnic group – the Swazi could not be used as compensation for land taken from another ethnic group – in this case the Venda.

This was a great pity as the inclusion of the Nyavadi Pan could be fully protected was it to be included in the KNP by the National Parks Board then or SANPARKS today.

Mike was at a later stage by one of the elders of the Makuleke clan Mr. Sam Mkenyi Chauke that the piece of land he had wanted included into the exchange was in fact not Venda land, it was a part of the land seized from the Venda by the Shangaans in the pre-colonial period by the warriors of Phele, the Venda were chased further westward into the area which is now under the control of Chief Mutele.

Mike English was taken to the positions of the landmarks indicating the historical western boundary of the Makuleke area during May 1995, by one of the older Makuleke citizens.

Mike arranged with Chief Makuleke and some of his elders to accompany him when he could indicate the original historical land marks, as a matter of etiquette two of the Village elders from Chief Mutele to accompany them, these elders knew exactly where the original historical boundaries were and confirmed Mike’s information as being accurate.

Eventually the land claim with the Makuleke people was settled as per their claim and not as per the original historical boundaries.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 21, 2009 10:32 pm 
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Location: Too blerry far from Kruger
Quote:
As Indians experience difficulty in obtaining reservations, representation should be made for the erection of additional cottages for Indians as the existing accommodation was totally inadequate, and also for the provision of better facilities such as kitchen and dining room facilities.
Subsequently the Board decided that:
“An opening is made in the fence at Skukuza rest camp so that everyone could have access to the shop in the European rest camp after the gates had been closed for the night.


Wow, amazing history and facts. Referring to the above, I remember as a child when we visited KNP and stayed at Skukuza, we used the cordoned off facility (which today is still seperately fenced off) when you enter Skukuza and go past the Reception, if you turn right going towards the caravan / camping area, you will see an entrance on your right hand side, this was the area for Indians.

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Stress levels are rising ... need a Kruger fix


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 Post subject: Re: The Next Fifty Years
Unread postPosted: Wed Jul 21, 2010 11:36 am 
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Joined: Tue Dec 25, 2007 4:52 pm
Posts: 2603
Location: VEREENIGING
Government involvement in the Development of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

The Government has always been sympathetic towards the establishment of National Parks in South Africa.

The KRUGER NATIONAL PARK was proclaimed during 1926 – during the Premiership of Genl. JBM Hertzog, who was a good friend and supporter of Minister Piet Grobler, the Minister of Lands.

Genl. JC Smuts was re-elected Prime Minister in 1939 and as at was the time of WW2 times were very difficult and therefore very extensions we carried out, however Genl. Smuts was a nature lover who had a holistic approached and in his private capacity did much for nature conservation in South Africa, including the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

After the 1948 elections Dr. Malan who took personal interest in the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK; became Prime Minister and this is when intense government interest and support for the National Parks Board started.

Advocate JG Strijdom was the Minister of Lands; he had the full support of Dr. Malan and the Cabinet in obtaining funding for the development of the National Parks.

This assistance was not restricted to Government funding but also in obtaining loans from which the capital projects could be carried out.

Minister PO Sauer who was the Minister of Transport arranged grants towards to construction and maintenance of gravel roads and bridges in the KRUGER PARK.

JG Strijdom succeeded Dr. Malan as Premier, PO Sauer became Minister of Lands and BJ Schoeman became Minister of Transport.

With the assistance of Strijdom the position of Director of National Parks was created. Dr. Rocco Knobel was the first appointee.

During their period of office the development of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK was expedited, Minister Sauer assisted with the obtaining of further loans for capital projects and also assisted in solving the unique problems of the Park, Schoeman increased the road building fund and things started going really well.

Dr. HF Verwoerd became Premier in 1958 and during his period of office, Minister Sauer had certain laws passed and amended concerning the extension of existing National Parks, the increase of loan funding, more that R1000000 was made available for road improvements in 1963. Minister PMK le Roux responsible for Agricultural Technical Services approved government funding for fencing of the Park.

The Union of South Africa became the Republic of South Africa on 31 May 1961 and within three years the Golden Gate Highland National Park, the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park and the Aughrabies National Park were added to the existing National Parks.

State President regularly visited the National Parks; Dr. Verwoerd was the only Prime Minister who could boast that he had regularly visited all the National Parks. Prime Minister JB Vorster regular visited the KRUGER PARK and always referred to it as “my plaas” – “my farm”.

The regular visits by and genuine interest shown by State Presidents, Prime Ministers, Cabinet Ministers Members of Parliament and Administrators and members of the Provincial Administration to these inviolate areas most definitely contributed favourably to the development of the National Parks.

The National Parks Board took over the trading activities in the Park during 1956 – this greatly contributed to the competency and dignity to the material side of the organization.

By the early 1960s the

Personnel accommodation was increased to 140 units together with a further 150 compound units with ablution blocks.

Tourist accommodation was increased to more that 1000 units.

130 windmills were erected. 1240 miles of tourist roads some of them were tarred and more that 2000 miles of patrol and firebreaks were made.

Seventy five vehicles of various kinds were in service together with forty road building vehicles and twenty radio sets and one hundred and four refrigeration units.

The Nature Conservator who controlled the biological functions in the Park had sixteen Rangers and two hundred black field staff in assistance, of their greatest achievements was the reintroduction of the White Rhino from the Natal Park.

The KRUGER PARK had by now developed well equipped laboratories manned by suitably qualified Biologists who were supported by a team of Veterinarians.

The Technical Services Department headed by a qualified Engineer was in operation.

In conclusion it can be accepted that without government funding and assistance the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK could not have developed as rapidly into what we all enjoy today. Maybe one day in the near future the assistance the National Parks Board could rely on in the past could again become a reality for the South African National Parks.

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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