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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 8:44 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . .12

The Warden made the following comments when asked about the absence of vultures by someone who had not been to the Low Veld for many years since the era preceeding the Anglo-Boer War.

It was pointed out that in the old days these birds used to roost in scores on the trees surrounding every white man's camp and in the vicinity of every native village and were always circling about low over the trees. " Now " , he added " one hardly ever sees vultures except as a mere spec in the sky ".

Stevenson - Hamilton replied that what the man was now paying high tribute to the success of Game Conservation. Formerly vultures associated the presence of hunan beings, especially that of the white man, with plenty of meat. In the very early days the remains of Giraffes, antelope and Buffalo littered the Veld, every camp was a larder with it's long strings of drying biltong festoned to every tree in the neighbourhood. At the present day this is altered; within the GAME RESERVE the few buck that are killed for man's food are eaten to the last sinew, the vultures must now depend on their food for what is left by the Lions and other carnevora. Probably therefore their numbers are very much less than formerly the case; but with that there was still plenty of them; this becomes evident when you come across a dead animal. On such occasion one may sometimes see a hundred or more birds assembled, waddling clumsily and fighting around the carcass.

During the shooting season of 1920, when many hunters were shooting the game on the Lebombo Flats south of Komati Poort, vultures assembled in immense numbers, and became so gorged that the carcasses of amny animals, were left untouched and left to rot. This was of course outside the SABI GAME RESERVE boundaries. The use of small bore repeating rifles often left many wounded wild animals who had escaped to die later . . . .

During the Anglo-Boer War and the First World War the reamins of many dead horses, mules and oxen also littered the Transvaal and South West African and the Portugues Nyassaland and British and German East africa, the distances flown by the vultures to their feasts were often astonishing.

The commonest of the Vulture family was the Cape Vulture, then there were the Black Vulture with it's red wattles and the little Egytian Vulture which was much less numerous than the first two mentioned.

Vultures are among the most usefull birds in AFRICA together with the Jackals and Hyaenas and eventually the Ants they clear the veld of rotting decaying matter . . . . . and therefore prevent disease.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 10:10 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . 13

Stevenson-Hamiton wrote that thanks to it's secretive and mainly noctunal habits as well as it's natural cunning and comprehensive diet, the Leopard will always be the last of the carivora to vanish from areas opened up by civilization, and long survives the disappearnce of the big game.

Leopards are seldomnly seen and hardly ever heard by day.Accustomed to lie up in the densest thickets, they slip silently away at the first hint of any possible approaching danger.

In the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, many if not most sandy beds of rivers or dried spruits bear dailt witness to the patrolling of a Leopard or maybe a mother and her cub, during the hours of darkness.

Leopards seldomnly range far from the neighbourhood of permanent water during the dry seasons, but as the wild animals disperse after the falling of the first rains, the Leopards will also follow suit, when he will for the last time stretch his limbs, roll in the rotting leaves of the tree - the scene of many a hearty meal - then after a few glances around, he silently moves off inland to a new forest pool where the adjacent dense bush or reeds offer secretive cover for an ambush and comfortable living.

Occasionally the day may be spent up in some big leafy, tree draped across one of the horizontal growing branches, possibly watching motor vehicles pass by or wondering what the parked vehicles are finding so interesting.

Leopards when hungry, sometimes prowl about their area untill they sight or wind an animal, and then stalk it, or lie in ambush concealed in some dense thicket or clump of reeds. The death wound is normally by a bite that severs the jugular vein, or the vertebrae at the back of the neck. The blood is licked up untill it ceases to flow and the carcass is then dragged into some convenient bush or up a nearby tree after it has been disembowelled, the entrails are normally covered with earth and leaves. and then the hard worked meal is started normally the softer parts like the heart, liver and lungs are eaten first.

After the meal the animal will go for a drink of cool AFRICAN water the Leopard go into it's favourite spot , stretch out its limbs, yawn and go to sleep of the excesses . . . . . .

Leopards prefer killing their own prey, having a great partiallity for warm blood, but when food is scarce will without hesitation take to any carrion, no matter how far decay has set in. They will return as often as required to their kill, no matter how far putification has taken place, untill all flesh has been consumed. Leopards will only eat once they have ensured their own afety, at the least sign of danger, the area will be avoided and only returned to once it has satisfied itself of it's own safety.

Leopards are indiscriminate killers, They will as much as is available, when entering a goat pen, they will kill untill the adrenalin has been worn off or untill disturbed. Leopards will take dogs as any other animal, once five curs were taken from a poachers camp and in the evening tied to a log. The night was dark and drizzly, the following morning all five were gone, with only Leopard spoor in the dust - being the only evidence . . . . . . .

Stevenson - Hamilton was of opinion that Leopard would not face a large or courageous dog during daylight, it would rather make an escape, but in darkness all was different. With a formidable set of teeth and talons that could rip open anything it attacked, especially the belly the Leopard is a deadly animal. The only way in which a dog has a chance is by grabbing it from above by the neck or the head, and then pinning it down . . . . . When at bay a Leopard is a plucky and dangerous animal, it can be relied on that a Leopard always charges home, the possibility of it losing heart or stopping or swerving at the last moment are so slim as should not be reckoned upon. Other carivores may leave an enemy after running it down and biting or scratching it, not the Leopard it will finish off what it started and will only flee if chased off.

Leopards are solitary creatures, a male and female will only be seen together during the few days of their courtship, then their paths will separate. The litter will be born and the female will take care of the cubs untill they can fend for themselves, when they leave the area and find an area where they can reign, normally after about two years. When she again would seek the comapny of a new mate . . . . . .

Leopards during day are silent creatures but at night time one may hear their harsh cough which is repeated several times in quick succession, not unlike the sawing of wood. . . .

Leopards are good swimmers and have no problem crossing water. the drift tangled islands in the Sabi are favourite day resorts for these beautifully dark rosette spotted on a golden body with piercing eyes members of the cat family, Panthera Pardus

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 11:15 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . . 14

The Warden was a very keen observer and student of Mother Nature and her four legged children.

He wrote about the Chita ( his spelling ) : this animal is distinguished from all other cats by it's lack of fully retractile claws. a circumstance which imposes upon it a manner of hunting it's prey distinct from that employed by remainder of the Felidae. It is a slenderly built, long legged animal, fashioned for speed rather than cat-like agility. the golden coloured body is covered with solid spots and a fuff decorates the neck. The head is small, with taer like streaks running down from the eyes,.the teeth rather inferior for a predator, the jaw less powerfull, the tail is long and rather bushy and acts as a rudder when at full speed.

It inhabits most of the drier, less densely forested portions of the AFRICAN continent, where game animals exist.

The Hunting Leopard ( his words ) is secretive and shy by nature, less nocturnal than any of the other cats and often ventures into broad daylight.

Over a short distance this cat can outsrip any antelope, the bolt is quickly shot and should the prey have sufficient start and manage to keep ahead the first five hundred metres or so, the Chita seldom perseveres. It relies soleley on the fleetness of foot, injury - how slight - very often condemns it to starvation.

They generally hunt in pairs or a family group. They are far more sociable creatures than Leopards but strictly monogamous than Lions.

The prey is stalked by moonlight or in the early morning, displaying all the cunning and stealth of the Leopard, taking adavnatge of the wind and every bit of cover a bush or a tuft of grass can offer, as he crawls along - close to the ground. When at a closer distance a dash like lightning erupts and is halfway before the prey realises what is happening and is pulled down before it gets into it's desperate fleeing stride. Racing up to it's quarry the hunter springs to it's throat or onto the back of the victim or even slaps one of the hind feet and trips it, falling into a dusty turmoil. The jaws are never relaxed untill completely satisfied that the prey is dead either from suffocating from a compressed windpipe or the loss of blood through a severred artery. The belly of the victim is torn open and the entrails removed and dragged to one side. Then they start feeding, the soft parts first. The liver and forequarters are left for last.

Cheetahs generally do not return to their kill. Their practise seems to catch, eat as mauch as they can and then drink water as much as they can from the nearest pool of water, then find some shade and rest, the day's work done.

The prey is normally up to the size of a Reedbuck and often the immature of the larger herbivores.

They also are not seen feeding on carrion.

Cannibalism among Cheetah is not something strange, many instances have been recorded where the half eaten body of a Cheetah had been found with clear signs of the feeder being another Cheetah. The victim may have been the loser in a contest for area or prey not unlike all the members of cat family.

Though a ruthless hunter of his natural prey, the Cheetah is inoffensive as regards to man, it will an entire lack of pugnacious qualities when confronted, even when wounded. It is docile and timid in disposition and gentle in captivity.

Cubs are covered by long blue-grey silky hair along the upper parts, while the rest is coverred by a soft tawny fur with dark spots. The sound is a mew not unlike that of a kitten and later adds a birdlike chirp and a soft purr, when threatened the animal may also sometimes uttera warning growl.

When annoyed Cheetah wil spit like domestic cats and also strike out with their paws often in defence or as warning . . . . . .

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 12:34 pm 
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THE EARLY RANGERS . . . . . PART 9

W.H. KIRKMAN

Walter Henry ( Harry ) Kirkman was born in the Steytlerville area on 31 March 1899. Here in the Karoo the boy learnt to love nature.

He wanted to join the ALLIED FORCES at the start of WORLD WAR 1 only 15 years of age, too young, according to his father, eventually the latter was convinced by his son that he was old enough. Young Harry reported his age as 18 years old and was worn in. He joined Genl. van Deventer's SOUTH AFRICAN BRIGADE in pursuit of General Paul non Lettow Vorbeck in Tanzania. He saw action at Latimanek and Salita, like many of his fellow soldiers he got malaria and was returned to SOUTH AFRICA to recover. When recovered he was sent to Potchefstroom where he was trained as a Gunner, The Spanish flu swept through the country and the soldiers ( including Gnr. W.H. Kirkman ) were deployed through the sticken areas to carry out emergency services.

After 11 November 1911, Harry Kirkman returned to the Karoo, however conditions were not good and the Kirkman family moved to the Waterberg District of the Transvaal, where Harry met Bert Tomlonson with whom a lifelong, good friendship developed.

Tomlinson later informed that he had accepted an appoinment as Ranger in the SABI GAME RESEVE and there was a vacancy on the TCL farm in the Toulon area, Kirkman applied and got the job. Kirkman now working on a cattle farm enjoyed life.

During a coutersy call at Sabi Bridge Kirkman met the Warden, during their conversation, Harry realised that this is where he wanted to be.

Early in 1933 ( during the disasterous drought )Stevenson- Hamilton informed Kirkman that he had a vacancy. Kikman applied and got the job. As from 1 April 1933 Harry Kikman now was a clerk/ relief Ranger at Sabi Bridge in the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK. while at Sabi Bridge Kirkman met Ruby Ross - stepdaughter of Albert Cass - the shopkeeper at Sabi Bridge, fell in love with her and got married in the spring of 1934.

The energetic and restless Kirkman was soon called " Mlilwane ) - the little fire by the locals.

As from December 1935 the young couple were transferred to Letaba, here the young Harry got ill and was sent to Nelspruit for treatment. They were transferred back to Sabi Bridge during May 1936 where he serves as Ranger of the area.

Ranger Kirkman was keen on Black rhino and spent much time in finding them in the dense Nwatmhiribush.On 22 July 1936 he found spoor along the Nwatiwambuspruit and a week alter some more fresh tracks. On 6 October 1936 he found some more spoor near the confluence of the Mhlupeka and Nwatihiri Spruits. Ranger Kirkman and his native Rangers were rewarded on 17 October 1936 seeing their Black Rhino, unfortunately they were also the last to see any of this magnifecent beasts untill re-introduction in 1971 from the Natal Parks.

Kirkman assisted Tomlinson in following and arresting white poachers near the Mahlambandlophu Pan. He relieved Ranger Rowland-Jones at PUNDA MARIA during 1938, here Kirkman got malaria.

End May 1938, Kirkman was transferred to SHANGONI. While on patrol along the Mphongolo River Kirkman was attacked by Lion while riding onhis horse. The Lion was shot and wounded - it disappeared into the thick bush, during the follow up, the Lion was found , shot and killed by the black Ranger George who accompanied him. The y hastily set off to Shangoni where Kirkman and the horse were treated, unfortunately the horse died a few days later.

During May 1941 Kirkman was instructed to assist Harol Trollope in returning some Elephants which had escaped from KRUGER through the western boundary. This was done but unfortunately of the bulls had to be shot for not co operating.

Ranger Kirkman relieved Rowland Jones while on active duty during WORLD WAR 2, during these patrols he for the first time viewed the Nyandu Sandveld ( a sandy area created by the wind from the the KALAHARI over many thousands of years ) as well as the Malonga Pool - a stopover in the much earlier years.

Kirkman joined the ALLIED FORCES and left on 15 October 1942. He was served in the Deserts of AFRICA, facing the sunburn and the whineng of German shells overhead and the bitterly cold of the night. He returned to Shangoni after the War.

Ranger Kirkman was transferred to SKUKUZA in March 1947. As from 1950 Kirkman was appointed in charge of Road Construction and Maintenance. Although his mian duty was construction and mainteance of roads he also spent much time in combating soil erosion.

Elephant herds were now freely crossing the Olifants River and also left the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, raiding the bordering lands mainly the Citrus orchards. Kirkman was tasked in September 1950 together with Ranger Eric Mingard and the then Warden Col. Sandenbergh, to chase 41 Elephant bulls back to where they belong - the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK. Eventually 32 Elephants were returned and 7 shot.

Ranger WALTER HENRY KIRKMAN retired from service on 31 December 1958, after retirement he still served as Ranger in the Sabie Sand Reserve where he started his Low Veld career 32 years ago. Here at Sabie Sand he retired in July 1969 at the age of 70 years.

As tribute to Harry Kikman the owners of the Sabie Sand named the KIRKMANS CAMP and HARRY'S HUTS after this remarkable man. The first Warden of Swaziland National PARK T. Reilly, named it " Ml'lilwane " also remembering hismentor at SABI SAND.

Today you may also pass the Shaben Kop and notice the borehole and dams called . . . . . . KIRKMAN . . . . .

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 2:25 pm 
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G , thank you for sharing this enthralling series .

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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 3:27 pm 
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THE EARLY RANGERS . . . . . . PART 10

Lt. Col. M. ROWLAND - JONES

Maurice Rowland - Jones was born on 8 March 1899 in the village Misterton, Nottinghamshire in England.

After school he joined the British Army. He was commissioned in India and later promoted to the rank of CAPTAIN. He resigned from the Army in the twenties and moved to South Africa.

He was appointed Supervisor at Numbi Gate in 1931.

Outside the tourist season, Rowland - Jones applied his knowledge of building and concrete. He was tasked to build a concrete dam in the Ntomenispruit. The daw was built with great care but unfortunately the wall foundations were not well anchored resulting in a big hole being torn out of the wall during the first flooding. The hole was repaired but never held water very well. The dam is now sanded up but the water retained in the sand now acts as a reservoir for the swamp below the wall.

Earlier there was wooden pole bridge crossing the Sand River. Rowland-Jones was commissioned to construct a concrete bridge as replacement, he commenced the construction in 1932, which was completed by the earlier mentioned P.J. Joubert, it is said that the barrels of confiscated poacher rifle barrels were used as reinforcing in the concrete.

At the end oof the 1932 tourist season Rowland - Jones built a 55 000 litre water reservoir at Sabi Bridge. Still to be seen on the SKUKUZA Nature Conservation Section terrain.

During 1933 Rowland-Jones was requested to remove a windmill at SABI BRIDGE and re-erect it at LETABA as water supply to the rest camp.

Rowland - jones built the ablution block at SATARA which in later years had to be dynamited during removal.

Rowland - Jones was permanently appointed in 1937 - seven yeras after starting at NUMBI GATE. Ranger Maurice Rowland-Jones replaced Ranger I.J.Botha on 1 June 1938 at PUNDA MARIA after the latters resignation. He was later also appointed Justice of the Peace.

CAPTAIN M. Rowland-Jones was called up for active service in World War 2 by his Unit the NATAL CARBINEERS on 21 May 1940. He Served in Magagascar and when the UNIT was moved to the Middle-East he went with and served there untill the end of the war. While on active service he became C O of Unit 133 with the rank of Lt. Col..

While away his wife Elsie remained at PUNDA MARIA, she got ill early 1942 and was transferred to a hospital in Pretoria but unfortunately died on 4 March.

Lt. Col. rowland Jones returned from active service with an O.B.E. and resumed his duties at PUNDA MARIA. he later remarried to Violet Syme.

While at PUNDA MARIA Ranger Rowland-Jones built a comfortable patrol hut at Hapapekop near PAFURI which was once occupied by a male Lion with asnare around it's neck.

The tall lanky Ranger Rowland - Jones named " Malokoloko " who always wore a wide brimmed "Baden Powell " type of hat was promoted to Senior Ranger and transferred to SKUKUZA as from 26 June 1954, where he worked with the newly appointed Warden L.B. Steyn untill his retirement from service on 31 December 1958.

The Senior Ranger made frequent visits to the various Ranger Posts where incorrections were put right in a MILITARY fashion. He was a keen birder and during his service compiled a birdlist naming 299 observed species. After retirement the couple settled at Haenertsburg. Rowland - Jones was appointed as relief WNNLA Official, while he was relieving at the WNNLA office at PAFURI his time came in the form of a heart attack on 15 August 1959 at the age of 60 years. Lt.Col. MAURICE ROWLAND-JONES was put to rest at White River and the widow then settled in Pietersburg . . . . .

W.H. LAMONT

William Henry Lamont was born on 24 August 1884 in the village of Renfrew in Scotland. He became a sailor and after a while returned to Scotland. He joined the SCOTTISH HORSE REGIMENT and was sent to SOUTH AFRICA for service during the Anglo-Boer War. Upon arrival in SOUTH AFRICA the War had ended and Bill Lamont arrived as unemployed in SOUTH AFRICA. He joined the mines for a while, then tried farming in Standerton - which he found boring. He then moved to Potgietersrus where he farmed for 16 years.

Bill Lamont was appointed Tourist Officer at the SHINGWEDZI REST CAMP in the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, replacing George Meade in 1937.

Being knowledgable on digging and blasting - from his mining years - Bill Lamont was appointed Technical Official in chage of well digging and dam construction in the northern part of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

" Siafa " as he was called, commenced his duties in 1939 and by 1941 had completed 24 wells, of which seven being : Nwarihlanga-south, Babalala, Stangene, Mashikiri, Masanje, Nkovakulu and Nwahitsumbe-north are still today in use. Siafa = we are working ourselves to death.

" Siafa " discovered Tshalungwa, the hot mineral spring near the Madzaringwe Spruit while digging the Klopperfontein well. It was also known as Siasa fountain.

'Siafa " was in 1939 requested to erect a tented camp at the now PAFURI PICNIC SPOT, alongside the Levuvhu River. Many of the poles still seen at the site today are Lebombo - Ironwood planted by " Siasa ". While constructing the camp, Lamont saw a hole in a Jackalberry tree, he poked a stick into it and felt something inside, on extraction he found a tobacco pouch wih a few gold souvereigns . . . . . This tented camp was closed in 1948 due to health risk and flood damage. . . '

Bill Lamont replaced Harry Kirkman at Shangoni in October 1942 when the latter went on Active Service, Ranger Lamont also served at PUNDA MARIA and SHINGWEDZI. Bill Lamont masoned the comemorative stone with the wording " Brian Key lives here 17-4-1949" in memory of Board member B.A. Key whose ashes werwe strewn in the SHINGWEZI CAMP. The mentioned stone can still be seen on the Northern side of the Kanniedood Dam.

Ranger WILLIAM HENRY LAMONT retired from service on 30 April 1950 and settled at Kasane on the Chobe River in Botswana.

His time came in 1974 and was buried at Serondela on the banks of the Chobe River.

A windmill five km to the north-west of SHINGWEDZI today still bears his name commemorating his contribution to the water supply to animals of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK. . . . .

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 5:00 pm 
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THE EARLY RANGERS . . . . . . . PART 14

D.H.SWARTS

Dawid hercules Swarts was born on 28 November 1904 in Parys Ornage Free State. After school he joined the S A police as a mounted Constable, at Louw's creek,Barberton, and Squamans between Komati poort and the swaziland nothern border.

Eventually Constable Swarts became Sergeant Swarts and was seconded to SABI BRIDGE as Clerk of the Court of the Special Justice of the Peace the honourable J. Stevenson - Hamilton. Sergeant Swarts was offered the job of storeman and clerk attached to the Office of the Warden at SKUKUZA during 1938 which he gladly accepted.

Dawie Swarts was sent to relieve Ranger Crous while on long leave at LETABA from December 1939 untill June 1940.

Dawid Swatrs married Sannie Coetzee a member of the Post Office staff in October 1940, in Nelspruit. They had one son also Dawid.

After Ranger Ledeboer's retirement in March 1946, Dawie Swarts became Ranger Swarts at SATARA. Her he made many improvements to the homestead and amongst others planted imany ndigenous trees being mopanis and Baobabs at the homestead and the Rest Camp.

Ranger Swarts enjoyed gardening and soon had a flourishing vegetable garden with many fruit trees going. Very soon known as THE garden in the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK

Ranger Swarts with Warden Sandenbergh was involved in in an unsuccessfull effort, catching Giraffe in Mozambique to be released in the Gorongoza NATIONAL PARK. The last survivor was eventually released near Kloppersfontein.

Ranger Swarts ruled his subordinated with an iron hand and was subsequently named " Mafele ".

'Mafele " was short and stout, always immaculately dressed ,wearing his white pith helmet. His work was always puntually up to date and neatly done.

Ranger Swarts was promoted to District Ranger of the Central area of the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK in 1954- the area between the Sabie and the Olifants rivers.

He was agood mentor and tutor to the Junior Rangers at Kingfisgerspruit and Tshokwane. He had many patrol roads opened along the Nwanetsi, Sweni and Timbavati Rivers, as well as from Orpen to Naboomkop, from the old GORGE REST CAMP to the Olifantsriver Falls ( presently the site of the Olifants Trai Camp ) then to the beautiful Bangupoort, the Pumbeplato, the Ngirivanni koppies,Mashatu Pan and the Ngumlapan.

He constructed a comfortable field post at the Pumbe post on the Sandveld Plato on the LEBOMBO MOUNTAINS, which was for many years used by officials doing field work in the area. A similiar post was built at Tseri on the banks of the Olifants River.

District Ranger Dawid Swarts succeeded Senior Ranger Rowland - Jones in that position. Unfortunately some irregularities put an end to his career in the PARK and he left the service on 31 May 1959. He retired to his farm Hiltop between Nelspruit and Barberton until his death in 1970.

H.C.Wolhuter

Henry Charles Wolhuter the son of Harry and Alice Wolhuter was born in the Barberton hospital on 29 June 1929.

He grew up in the SABI GAME RESERVE and the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK. He was educated at the Uplands Primary School at White River and at the St John's College in Johannesburg.

After finishing school he worked for the Chamber of Mines a little while and then joined the SOUTH AFRICAN ARMY- serving in the Mddle East in the ANIMAL TRANSPORT UNIT.

After the end of the War he returned to the Chamber of Mines for half a year.

After the retirement of his father Harry in April 1946, young Henry was appointed in his place as Ranger at Pretoriuskop. Henry married Rosemary Dyke-Wells in 1948, the couple who had two daughters were unfortunately later divorced.

Henry was promoted to District Ranger in April 1954 taking charge of the Southern Area - between the Sabie and the Crocodile Rivers. He married joan Merriman in 1956, they had three sons Geoffrey and the twins Henry and Kim.

Henry was promoted to Senior Ranger on 1 April 1961 and was then transferred to SKUKUZA.

Henry served with distinction, he had a vast knowledge of the fauna and flora of the Low Veld. He knew the black languages since childhood and was very knowledgeable about the black culture and traditions.

He was always up und going in the very early morning and was therefore called " kwezi " - morning star.

Ranger Henry Wolhuter together with his faithfull black fellow Rangers Charlie Nkuna, Simon Mangane and Sergeant Helfas Nkuna knew every inch of their alloted responsibility and were responsible for the arrest of many poachers. He made great effort in stabilising the water supply in his areas, he built the concrete dam in the Upper Komapitsi Spruit as well as a rock and concrete dam on the rocky Tlapa-la Mokwena as well as two earth dams near the Napikop.

Senior Ranger Henry Wolhuter will also be remembered for his huge contribution in translocating White rhino from the NTAL PARKS to the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK.

Henry developed emficeamia during 1963, with him ending up in hospital for a while. after being discharged he spent some time at the NATIONAL PARKS HEADQUARTERS in Pretoria during the period May to August 1964. Returning to hisold position end August. The emficeamia got most of him and his time came on 14 December 1964 at the very young age of 44 years.

Now at the end of 1964 the long history of the Wolhuter involvement with the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK, an era spanning over 62 years, came to an end. Lindanda and Kwezi will be remembered for very many years . . . . . .

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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2009 5:40 pm 
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SABI BRIDGE BECOMES SKUKUZA

In August 1932, Gustav Preller, a member of the Board, proposed that the name SABI BRIDGE be changed to SKUKUZA. The proposal was immediately accepted. The name was changed and the SOUTH AFRICAN RAILWAYS were then also requested that the name of the siding to the north of the Sabie River bridge also be altered, which was promptly done.

The SABI BRIDGE REST CAMP was officially renamed SKUKUZA during a ceremony attended by caring dignatories in September 1932. A worthy tribute to the man who went to make himself unpopular and who litteraly turned every thing upside down and swept clean - the Scottish Aristocrat - JAMES STEVENSON - HAMILTON.

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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2009 10:04 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . . 15

In normal times, herbivorous wild animals appear to be in prime condition and health. They have to be if each is to continue its individual existance. It is Nature's law -the survival of the fittest, which provides no safeguard for the sick, the lame and the old. It is here that the predatory beasts play so important a part in the life economy, for nature is concerned only with the maintenance and improvement, of a type, and has no concern whatsoever for the individual.

Therefore, by their constant weeding out of those animals which inferior to their companions in physical or mental ability, offer themselves more easily as prey. In doing so they ensure the general health and strength of the species, being kept up to the highest possible level; and by pulling down sick animals immediately their illness to causes them to lag, if ever so little, behind their companions, they do much to to restrain the spread of contagious maladies. Without the help of predators overstocking will occur, which will lead to the species becoming weaker, the outbreak of disease the destruction of the pasture and starvation. Within a few years the country would be a sterile desert, requiring years to recover again sustain larger mammalian life.

The same stern law of the survival of the fittest governs also the existense of the carniverous species, any member incapacitated for some reason from catching its normal prey to sustain its normal life, must die miserably.

In any wild game country where man has not yet interfered with the intricate relations between wild creatures, the carniverous animals are exactly proportioned to the stock of animals, forming their food supply. So well is the balance adjusted, that a temporary increase or decrease in one direction, is followed by a corresponding change in the other. This at first sight may appear remarkable, seeing that all the former, produce several youngat birth, whereas that latter are almost entirely restricted to one only. But, if we look a little more closely into the matter, Nature's method will become clearer to us.

Each female antilope from about her third year, produces annually, for probably at least seven or eight years, a single young one. Eliminating accidents and depletion of natural enemies, it may be confidently assrted that, under favourable natural conditions, practically every one of these young animals reach maturity, and if it happens to be a female, in due course produces its kind. The preponderance of females over males by a ratio of seven to four. It may terefore, be realizes that, given immunity from all foes, these animals will multiply at a prodigious rate. For instance the progeny of one female added to that of her daughters and granddaughters born within the period, would excluding accidents, would in nine years amount to fifteen, even supposing males and females being produced in equal numbers.

Here Nature steps in, and as ever, disregarding the individual in favour of the race, provides two checks. The first of these is the food supply, the deficiency of which tends to kill off the weaker adults,while, not only do the reproductive faculties of the residue become restricted through weakness, the mothers are in many cases unable to supply sufficient milk to the offspring born to them, only the very strongest of which accordingly survive. The second check is that part played by the carnivora, which in addition to the other toll they levy, keep down the number of useless mouths, by practically killing off all the weak and the aged. Thus in each case the survival of the fittest is maintained.

If we regard the rules governing the increase of the larger predatory beasts of the wild, we find that through nearly all the species of the order, produce several youngat birth, it is exceptional for more than half to reach maturity. In infancy they in contrast to the herbivours, extremely weak and delicate, being moreover, subject right up to puberty, to a number of infantile compaints and ailments, which without doubt, carry them off in large numbers. To what extent they do or do not survive to produce their species is, no doubt regulated by the food supply available, Firstly from their mothers and later by their own efforts.

it is obvious that after being emancipated from his mother's care, the young carnivoremust, in order to survive in the struggle for existance, be perfect in all physical and mental respects. The intensely acute senses of the animals which it is his aim to capture, perfected by ages of ceaseless efforts to escape from natural enemies, ensure that it shall be, generally not so easy matter for him to earn his daily bread, and in the wild nature, there is but one penalty for failure . . . . . . . death.

Again, the rate of breeding of the larger carnivora in a wild state is, in spite of the short periods of gestation prevalent, probably slower than is generally believed; though; no doubt, this too, may be dependent on the food supply. Where it is possible under normal conditions for these animals to increase in a certain area at a rate proportionally greater than that of the herbivora inhabiting the same, it must be obvious that through thelength and breadth of this continent, have exterminated the weaker creatures, and been reduced to preying on one another. But, so far from having been the case , in all newly discovered and inhabitated wild game countries, there exists evidence have been found to be exceedingly plentiful, and began to show signs of dimunition only after the entry of the human element.

The balance, however is so nicely adjusted, that to upset it is a Herculean task. the life cycle of of one of the larger antelopes, for example, taken to be in the wild state approximately 20 years, maybe a bit high, then 5% of all the animals would be left entirely to themselves, die annually of old age. Again, for the sake of argument, that 25% is the natural gross annual increase in ordinary years, there would then be a nett inannual increase of 20% should they not be molested by enemies.

It may be safely concluded that under average natural conditions, nearly 20% of all animals become food for the carnivora, a total of which includes the large number of young calves and fawns and lambs annually destroyed by them, as well as the old and the weary, few of which it may be supposed are allowed to die a natural death. From the latter, Hyeanas, no doubt, take their toll. There can also be included in the 20% a small percentage of deaths, from accidents and combats between males.

We are now left with a possible margin of 5% as the nett increase under favourable conditions which represents which man may draw without encroaching upon the capital. Anything in excess of this means a permanent reduction of the stock, unless the carnivora are proportionately kept down at the same time . . . . . . .

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Done 144 visits to National Parks.
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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2009 1:22 pm 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . . 16

The health of all species, carnivrous as well as herbivorous is appreciably by many factors another being internal and external parasites.

The blood, tissues and internal organs of animals contain varying numbers of parasitic organisms, which while in no way adversely affecting the health of the host so long it can obtain adequate nourishment to support both itself and those parasites, yet under unfavourable conditions may have very serious effects.

" Measles " the cysts of tapeworm - are present in the tissues of a considerable proportion of the ungulates ( hoofed animals ), relatively more in the older animals, when the herbage is poor, and are of course engorged by the predatory carnivora together with the flesh of the victim. Almost every Lion is infested with tania and is normally unaffected by it except in its appetite; it may easily be realised how dangerous the parasites might be to its strength and even life, when for some or other reason it has become difficult to capture sufficient food.

The intestines of Zebra are usually infested by bots, the livers of antelopes are also sometimes found infested with the larvae of linguatula and other worms. A nematode worm causes large grey patches in the lungs. These are just a few examples of internal parasites.

The life history of every species in a wild state proceeds not in a straight line, but in a series of curves, which are influenced by the incidence of available food supply, which is sometimes abundant and then sometimes, not - affects beneficially or detrimentally the general health of animals, and so more or less renders them resistive to attacks of the epizootes, of which nearly all are in greater or less degree affected.

When the environment is sympathetic, animals are able to find sufficient herbs and grasses to sustain themselves also in the combat against the epizootic onslaught, but when the reverse is the case, they are unable, or only with great difficulty able to find the natural cure from their ailmants.

The epizootic curve would normally rise and fall conversely to that indicating the health of the host.; unknown conditions may also sometimes favour the health of the parasites.

It is certain that under exceptionally unfavourable surroundings for the host, that internal parasites and external parasites in the form of lice and ticks multiply prigiously, what is called a " crash " ensues. It is only under such exceptionally phenominal conditions that the carniverous enemies could threaten the continued natural existance of a herbivorous species.

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No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2009 6:44 pm 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . 17

Stevenson-Hamilton noted the following about the BROWN HYAENA - general colour ashy brown, with darker bands on the legs and hindquarters, a yellowish white collar is present on the sides of the neck. A mantle of long dark brown hair, covers the body, increasing the apparant size of the animal. The tail is short and bushy and the ears large and pointed.

In the north eastern Transvaal the species, though native to the low bush country is nowhere numerous. In the KRUGER NATIONAL PARK it was found to exist throughout, but was nowhere numerous.

It is a solitary animal, nocturnal in habit, and lying up by day, in deep ravines and thick bush. It will feed on carrion as the rest of the species, and also often attack other living animals. The first occasion on which one was caught in the GAME RESERVE, young goats had been persistantly taken from a certain kraal situated among the hills, the rocky ground showing no tracks, it was believed that a LEOPARD was the marauder. Traps were set and the first night a large male was secured at the goat kraal, this was as far as could be ascertained, the first time such an animal had been heard of in the district - the locals could not identify it. A month later a female was caught in a deep ravine near the same place, and at intervals of a yera or two, a few others were trapped at lower elevations.

Older natives said they had known the animal in Gazaland who often took young goats and sheep and sometimes even small children from the kraals at night, besides attacking sleeping adults after the manner of the SPOTTED HYAENA. GAZALAND = the Gaza Province of Mozambique.

Diring the winter of 1941, at aspot on the northern bank of the Sabie River, screened by thick bush and reeds, an ant bear warren was discovered, which had been converted into the den for a family of BROWN HYAENAS.

This den had apparantly been occupied by the family for a few years There were some half a dozen entrances to the warren, which covered some ten metres of open space.

The vicinity was littered with bones, it was quite evident that most if not all the animals had been siezed alive, and killed by those HYAENAS. This was a remarkable discovery for the Warden, as he said that to his knowledge the Hyaena family as a tribe were never really regarded as hunters. However in the present instance there was now no doubt that they were hunters. The heads of fourteen full grown Impala rams , all quite recently killed, the skulls of several Baboons, and two Chitas, as well as the remains of Guinea Fowl and a ppartly eaten Boomslang were among the exhibits. The carcasses of the animals had been dragged down the holes, including any hornless female Impala, for only the skulls of fully grown males were found outside. The prevailing odour was fairly good proof of what had happened.

The Hyaenas must have developed a sound hunting technique to have been able to catch and kill so many quick and wary animals.

The family occupied the den right through the 1941 tourist season and was so often visited by the tourists that it must have become unpleasant for the tenants, the last straw was when a couple of male Lions, attracted by the smell of rotting meat tried to dig up the den. accordingly the home was moved to a similiar sit a few km's away, where the hunting continued as while at their former residence.

The Warden also on two occasions in the evening surprised one of them on the road, it made off with great agility and without the clumsy lope of its cousin

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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2009 7:42 pm 
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Thank you, thank you, thank you :thumbs_up:

I want to see this in a special place where many people can enjoy and appreciate the contribution of these very special folk..

and also our own historian.

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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2009 8:41 pm 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . 18

The SIDE STRIPED JACKAL ( Canis Adustus ) is larger and stouter than the Black Backed cousin. It also lacks its alert appearance and active ways. The usual colour being a silvery grey with a brownish tinge, wit a white and black stripe running horizontally on either side along the length of the body. The face is rufous and the tail a white extremity. The muzzle is thicker than that of the cousin and the coloration quite variable.

The SIDE STRIPED JACKAL is more sluggish than the cousin and also much more nocturnal and solitary. They feed on carrion, small mammals and ground roosting birds. It is a dangerous pouktry thief. The Warden had a visitor who used to lie in waiting regularly outside his compound fence, in order to catch any chicken who may stray beyond in the early mornings. It was only after a reduction of numbers and follow ups, that the culprit was found and despatched of - a SIDE STRIPED JACKAL.

They are not entirely or even mainly carniverous, the will try anything and if tasty enough - eat it. The are known to do damage to mealy crops by chewing through the stem and then devouring the soft cobs.

They kill their prey more by pouncing on it than running it down, they do not seem to be as alert as the Black Backed cousins, as they are often approached upwind untill at very close quarters. As a species they are rather timid and normally make poor fights against dogs. They often sham dead when attacked by dogs.

SIDE STRIPED JACKALS go to ground readily, the young are born in holes, usually those discarded by Ant Bears or Porcupines. The number of births seem variable, the normal number is three or four although Harry wolhuter records having shot a female with twelve perfectly formed whelps, natives claim that six young are quite common.

In view of thelarge birth rate and short gestation period ( nine weeks ) - it is obvious that the infant mortality rate must be quite high as they are not very frequently seen. The mother seems to leave the young to their own devices soon after weaning them, this may probably be the reason for the failure for the majority of the whelps to survive.

SIDE STRIPED JACKALS seem to be born in winter in the eastern Low Veld. They become quite tame in captivity, if caught young, they may in the beginning show their teeth but will soon eat and drink regularly, and after a time resign themselves to their new life with equanimity.

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No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Wed Apr 08, 2009 9:16 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . 19

In the Low Veld the birds prey are very well represented. Of the Eagle family the largest and most conspicuous is surely the splendid MARTIAL EAGLE. With his white breast and a two and half metre wing span. He preys on all game birds and on mammals up to the size of a STEENBUCK; it will even take a SERVAL. It will also take domestic fowls.

The MARTIAL EAGLE more than compensates for the few fowls taken by the number of rodents and snakes consumed. When the opportunity arose the Warden examined the crops of these birds and it was very seldom to not find the remains of a snake or rat.

Other Eagles found in the Low Veld are the AFRICAN HAWK EAGLE, alittle smaller than the cousin just mentioned; the TAWNY EAGLE, a big, strongly bird, dark coloured bird, rather shy of man; the CRESTED HAWK EAGLE, which, sitting on some tree bough, with its long crest upright, at a long distance resembles a black cockatoo, the BOOTED EAGLE and WAHLBERG'S EAGLE. The The BLACK and BROWN CHESTED HARRIER EAGLES are very common. HARRIER EAGLES are serious foes of rodents, snakes and other reptiles, being particularly keen snake killers.

The BATELEUR is one of the most conspicuous birds that soars the AFRICAN sky, first dipping one tapered wing and then the other - looking particularly graceful in its flight, often with some prey, maybe a snake in its long sharp black talons. When settled on a bough and you move a bit closer, you will notice the red facial skin clear against the shiny blue black feathers of the head and body, with a normally chestnut brown back and tawny wing coverts, black upper legs, ending in bright red lower parts. Indeed a masterpiece of art work by mother nature.

The loud call of AFRICA near a stream or river is that of the AFRICAN FISH EAGLE - handsomest of all its tribe. It preys almost entirely on fish, but they are also known to stoop at wounded or unsuspecting duck on the surface of the water. The AFRICAN FISH EAGLE is probably the most numerous of of all the larger Low Veld birs of prey. The Warden wrote that there is something very attractive in it's wild cry and that when ever he heard it, he thought of many delightful midday rests in the shade , by reed-fringed expanses of clear blue water, while Hippo snort, and Kingfishers hover and plunge. He used to enjoy watching the FISH EAGLE rearing it's head backwards and then uttering its call of AFRICA . . . . .

Another very handsome bird in the Low Veld - a member of the Harrier family is the AFRICAN HARIER HAWK which preys mainly on frogs, small reptiles and insects.

The charming little insectiverous BLACK SHOULDERED KITE is a permanent resident; with the YELLOW BILLED KITE arriving in great numbers in the late spring and remain untill early March the following season.

The proud SECRETARY BIRD, maybe a pair together, strutting around, well distributed, although not plentiful, displaying their clean looking grey and black feathers, orange face with black feathers projecting behind the head, with long pinkish lower legs scrutinizing every square metre of ground for insects, rodents, young birds and SNAKES - their main dish.

The GIANT EAGLE OWL and the SPOTTED EAGLE OWL both eared species are common. These large owls buils a large flat nest of rough branches, sometimes on the top of a flat crowned thorn tree. They prey chiefly on rodents, snakes and other reptiles, but will also kill any bird they can catch fromthe size of a Guinea Fowl downwards, including poultry.

The little WHITE FACED SCOPS OWL and the AFRICAN SCOPS OWL both have small owl ear tufts and are common species living in pairs in the woodlands and mixed bush veld uttering their different distinctive calls at night. ealier mentioned fpredominantly grey with orange eyes encircled by a distinct white facial disc feeding on small rodents and insects, the latter mainly insectivorous, with plumage resembling grey tree bark.

The tiny PEARL SPOTTED OWL or OWLET is " earless ", brown with white pearly spots the underside is whitish streaked with brown. At the back of the head it has twi black markings resembling a pair of eyes. it occurs in woodland, mixed bush veld and riverine forests.

Though owls mainly make themselves heard at night, they also proclaim their presence even during the hottest hours of a summer afternoon.

The Warden very often had a struggle with birds of prey who had discovered that a hen and her chickens, out in the veld or even in the poultry run were much easier pickings, than snakes, rodents, insects and wild birds out in the veld . . . . . . .

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Done 144 visits to National Parks.
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 Post subject: Re: Col. James Stevenson-Hamilton : 1st Warden of KRUGER PARK
Unread postPosted: Wed Apr 08, 2009 10:58 am 
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THE WARDEN THINKS ABOUT . . . . . . . . 20

The Warden wrote that in summer the Low Veld, especially the thickly-bushed country near water courses, was one of the most snake infested areas in AFRICA. The poisonous front fanged MAMBAS, COBRAS and PUFF and NIGHT ADDERS being the most prominent, were liable to be lurking in any patch of long grass, thicket or pile of rocks.

He wrote that when walking through long grass it was dangerous not picking up one's steps. Fortunately most snakes most snakes get out of man's way as they can sense him approaching even while still a long distance away; but the sluggish PUFF ADDER being a lethargic brute does not move and when accidentally troden upon, strikes swiftly and fiercely - and holds on like a bull-dog.

He wrote that it was very disconcerting, finding a PUFF ADDER underneath one's sleeping mat in the morning, no doubt appreciating the body warmth of the previous evening, or a MAMBA in the tent or a SPITTING COBRA coiled up underneath the bed.

He wrote that on Christmas Eve, 1925, he spent the night at a rest camp . It was bright moonlight and very hot,after dinner, he sat outside. he felt something against his leg glancing down, he saw a large BLACK NECKED SPITTING COBRA crawling aling past his right thigh. It was a most unpleasant moment: the best course to pursue was to sit remain perfectly still, which he barely managed to the snake proceeding ithrough the open door into the interior of the hut. It went through his mind , what if it decided to crawl up to him. coil up and spend Christmas Eve in that position, surely it would have been an evening to remember.

The amazingly swift MAMBA is the real danger when walking through tall grass or among rocks. In it's anxiety to escape it will strike at any living thing that appears to bar its progress. The bite is so deadly that only the promptest attention with the correct knowledge and antedote can avert certain death. The results of a MAMBA bite are so rapid that ere home or camp can be reached it may be too late.

The natives of the area seem to often have found their own cure for snake bite from the herbs and trees of their area of residence. There is a small deciduous bush calles inkwakwamuti which is common in the LEBOMBO area, of which the root is taken and ground into the finest of powders then dried, when dry it is said to be mixed with the dried and powdered spleen of a MAMBA. This very dry powdered mixture is then kept in a tiny box or tin and carefully sealed, this cure is always carried by the natives. On being bitten by a MAMBA or a COBRA a ligature is applied above the bite marks in the ordinary manner, the puntures are then well scarified and of the powder is rubbed well into the wounds. A quantity of the powder is administered to to the patient with tepid water. It is an anti toxin treatment as the blood and gall of all poisonous snakes are known to contain toxic qualities, this explains their imunity the have from each other's bites. The patient will after a few minutes begin to vomit violently . . . . . and then sleeps for seven or eight hours; the following day the patient will be perfectly well. The ba- Hlengwe living in the north were said to posess the best snake medicine.

Stevenson- Hamilton noted that he would never recommend that a European use the mentioned native snake bite cure when the proven anti venom is available. He alo noted that it would do well to recollect that native doctors, in spite of contempt, often born of ignorance and maybe whatever other reason, with which they were regarded by the average white man, are by no means, fools, and that it would be astonishing if they had not in thousands of years not evolved some efficient remedy against one of the most serious dangers to which they and their clients were exposed.

Stevenson-Hamilton had the experience when his native police Sergeant on emorning brought in dead 2 metre MAMBA, he casually remarked that the snake was found in the thatch of a shed ,in trying to escape, it bit his son. The Warden was alarmed, the Sergeant was surprised and casually remarked that the son would be all right as they had the medicine handy. The Warden immediarely went to examine the child and found two deep fang marks on the outside of his left thigh, halfway between the knee and the hip. An excellent ligature had been applied and the wounds were treated as described above. The boy had been sick and was now asleep when seen, at approximately 11:00, at 18:30 he woke up opened his eyes with little more than the whites showing and in a semi comatose condition. No one seemed to have the least anxiety about him. Next morning he woke up and except for the swollen thigh, no doubt caused by the tight ligature showed no signs of what he had been through . . . . .

Afterwards two other policemen told that they and the wife of a third, had all been bitten by MAMBAS, but by having the medicine at hand, had suffered no ill effects. Conversely a woman working in the lands was bitten in the finger and not treated . . . . . .she died within the hour. It was agreed that the medicine must be applied in the case of a MAMBA bite within five or at the most ten minutes after the injury has occurred.

The native treat for vaperine bites was to open the wound thoroughly with a knife, wash them out with near boiling mealy bran and then put on successive very hot poultices of the same material. The Warden never saw this being done but the natives firmly declare that it was effective, drawing out the poison.

It is well known that an effective first aid treatment for the poison from the sting of a SEA BARBEL is by sticking the injury into water as hot as the patient may bear, this heat destroys the toxic protein . Maybe the heat of the hot bran has something to do with the cure of the adder bite.

Mongoose and birds of prey are the most effective enemies of snakes. Cats are also said to be effective snake killers however Stevenson- Hamilton lost several cats disposed of by snakes.

Dogs fall frequent victims especially while young, inexperienced and hot headed. Once onthe way home from patrol, two dogs were part of the group. A big MAMBA got up from the grass in front and dashed away along the path. The young Fox Terrier immediately gave chase, caught the snake and was promptly bitten. The older cross bred follwed and was also bitten, in the shoulder, the snake held on and was dragged along back to the rest of the patrol, where it let go and at once reared to do do battle, one of the men an expert in stickplay, like most of the Low-Veld natives, broke its neck as it attacked. The first dog died within minutes and the latter bigger dog within an hour or so. . . . . . .

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


Last edited by gmlsmit on Wed Apr 08, 2009 11:25 am, edited 1 time in total.

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