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 Post subject: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 30, 2012 10:02 pm 
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Junior Virtual Ranger
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The latest anthrax report about 30 roan antilope that died in the north of Kruger got me thinking about their survival, even though I am not a scientist...
30% of our National Park roan antilope dead in a few days!

So what can be done to save the magnificent Roan Antilope, or for that matter the Sable Antilope?
1. Turn a provincial reserve like Percy Fyfe into a national park (if they are thriving there) and expand it so that their future can be guaranteed. (Will this be financially viable – too small park, too few visitors?)
2. Widen our “Sanparks scientific thinking” pattern in more creative ways so we can see the bigger picture!
Maybe both options are viable, but I believe the second option needs to be addressed urgently – Sanparks are doing an amazing job of PROTECTING OUR WILDLIFE HERITAGE, but I believe they are TOO RIGID in sticking to “scientific” thinking patterns of the past!

Let me explain. The current Sanparks maxim reads like this: “ONLY ANIMALS THAT LIVED IN THIS AREA IN THE PAST, WILL BE ALLOWED/RELOCATED TO THIS AREA IN THE FUTURE!”

While this may be an excellent guideline to keep things in perspective, so we don’t put hippo’s in the Kgalagadi or keep whales in an artificial saline environment in Kruger, I belive this should ONLY BE A GUIDELINE, BUT NOT A FIXED RULE!

If we want to be truly scientific, then we need think a bit further.
If the above maxim were an absolute, it would mean: Destroy/kill/cull every alien plant, bird animal in ALL OUR PARKS – kill all the warthogs that never existed in Addo before; eradicate all the alien birds like English house sparrows that are threatening the common Cape Sparrow. I am sure there are many better examples that scientists could give, but obviously some aliens are just too tough/wise to exterminate easily, so we put up with them...

So lets look at the BIGGER PICTURE: Take birds for an example – they have NO BOUNDARIES/FENCES to keep them in any national park. As they adapt to environmental changes, they become extinct in certain areas, and move to more suitable habitat. The latest Bird Mapping projects show very clearly that there have been major shifts or expansions of habitat use by certain birds that are creative enough to adapt to a changing world. When I was a child, I NEVER saw drongos or hadidas at Helderberg College in Somerset West; bokmakieries were plentiful. Today these “Bushveld Birds” are common on our campus, and I have only seen 1 young bokamakierie here in the last 3 years. I believe hadidas have even extended their range right to the border of the Kgalagadi!

Birds can change their distribution because of 2 reasons – NO FENCES and ADAPTATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES, otherwise they may become extinct!
Question: Would it be scientific to try and chase drongos and hadidas back to Mpumalanga and KZN? Of course not! Just the opposite!

So why can birds spread all over South Africa and survive, but we want to RIGIDLY RESTRICT MAMMAL DISTRIBUTION ONLY TO PLACES WHERE THEY WERE FOUND 200 YEARS AGO, AND THUS THREATEN THEIR FUTURE EXISTENCE?

Obviously the fences and human encroachment have closed many corridors between parks, so animals are stuck where humans decide they need to be! I know our scientists try desparately to manage this limited environment as best they can – think of the thousands of elephants culled in Kruger to keep numbers down; today culling has been stopped, but natural methods have been tried to keep infant mortality higher and obviate the necessity of culling, by eg. closing strategic waterholes in Kruger so animals don’t have year round grazing and water, and weak and young ones can naturally die in years of drought.
Back to the Roan (and sable/oribi/Lichtenstein’s hartebeest etc.) – currently the ONLY national park where some of these ENDANGERED MAMMALS seem to thrive, is Mokala National Park near Kimberley.
If I understand Sanparks policy correctly, the sable and roan that are thriving here, will be “repatriated” to where they previously belonged, and maybe to their extinction!

In summary: A plea to Sanparks – give the mammals wings to fly from extinction!
They can’t do it behind their electrified fences.

Only you can help them!

Be more scientific and allow mammals to thrive where conditions are optimal for their ultimate survival – WHERE THEY WOULD HAVE MIGRATED TO IF THEY COULD, EVEN IF THEY WERE NOT IN THAT AREA 200 YEARS AGO!

If we don’t help them, THEY WILL NOT BE IN SOUTH AFRICA 20 YEARS FROM NOW!
Start now!

We have a Bontebok park; a Mountain zebra park; an Elephant park...

We need an Endangered Species park!

Just call it Mokala Endangered Species park, (or find another suitable place) and give the sable and roan a chance to survive in a changing world.

Just thinking...

Friedrich von Horsten

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Thu Aug 30, 2012 10:12 pm 
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Very interesting and thought provoking topic. :hmz: :thumbs_up:

does make sense to me as layman :D

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 1:45 am 
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We already have an endangered species park ... and it is called Mokala, but only Mokala National Park.

The other problem is precisely that animals don't have wings. So they cannot fly back from where they came when they find that the park humans translocated them to is not suitable for their ecological preferences. What then happens is that they either just die, or begin a slow decline, often to be pushed over the edge by a small event.

Now take the bokmakierie as an example. Why are they declining in your area? Is it perhaps precisely because of the drongos or hadidas coming in to their area and putting pressure on them in some way? Introducing new species can easily have unforeseen effects on the resident speces.

Your ideas are not necessarily wrong! :thumbs_up:

But one thing I think we have learned above all, is that it is not as easy as it often seems to us very wise humans to get solutions to ecological problems. Very often the "solutions" we put in place lead to further complications or end up being totaly ineffectual.

Some recent examples:
Fences ...
Water policy ...
Fire policy ...
Culling ...
Re introductions ....

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 3:36 am 
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All the above posts are important and need to be considered carefully.

Perhaps, in the words of Earnest Rutherford (discoverer of the electron over 100 years ago): "..too much equipment, too little brains!"

We need to think about and analyse this problem much like Mr von Horsten has done and use the best scientific minds to arrive at a solution. Bold ideas are essential if we are not to lose these wonderful antelope.

Doing nothing is NOT an option!


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 5:56 am 
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Thank you Imberbe and nsmsi,

I don't profess to have all the answers, but just wanted to get people thinking about alternatives that could perhaps save some of our rarer species in South Africa.

One of my greatest joys is to see herds of sable in Matobo/Hwange in Zim, and now and then a big group of Roan with their beautiful colouring and huge ears!

Haven't been lucky enough to see roan in Kruger, but the odd sable & hartebeest near Pretoriuskop...

Keep thinking, and share those thoughts with us!

God bless,

Friedrich von Horsten

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 8:56 am 
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Very interesting post started hear Friedrich :thumbs_up: . I also agree with Imberbe that we need to think long and hard about unforeseen risks to other species when introducing new species into areas.
For example: look at what is happening to bushbuck on bushveld farms where nyala has been introduced...
I agree 100% that we need to urgently think of ways to make our rare antelope populations more viable and robust and the way to do this is of course to have several different populations that are managed as a whole but in different locations. Mokala is a great start and seems to be very successful at present. I do think that we need to establish other populations as well in order to mitigate the risk of loosing too many individuals due to an unforeseen event in the Kruger or Mokala populations.
There is still other areas in South Africa that were historic habitats for these rare antelope and which could be utilized again. Take Nylsvley for instance. The reserve has a thriving population of Roan antelope due to the Nyl floodplain providing them with ideal habitat and grazing. The only problem is that Nylsvley is very small. It would be great if national and provinsial government could work together with farmers in the area to expand the protected area around Nylsvley, thereby providing more space for the Nylsvley Roan population to increase in number.
The Waterberg also provides the ideal habitat for Sable, so it would be wise if Sanparks could also work together with private farmers in this region to expand the Sable number (perhaps this is already done in Marakele?).

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 9:39 am 
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As far as my information goes: the Percy Fyfe nature reserve already has Roan and many years ago were doing quite well, I do not know what the current situation may be. There is thus no possibility of introducing this wonderful and endangered species into an area with no suitable habitat for them.

I cannot understand why anyone who really cares has to try and shoot down any positive suggestions made by someone else.

I therefore am in support of Friedrich von Horsten's "unscientific' idea, the current "scientific ideas" have allowed the death of 30% of the KNP Roan population.

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 10:18 am 
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:thumbs_up: Friedrich

I have just spent a few hours surfing, reading and learning more about the disease.

Lots of scientific information available, many research projects still underway and it seems that the more we think we know, the more we realize how little we have learned since Louis Pasteur made the connection between earthworms and the Anthrax life cycle.

I have been fortunate enough to see a herd of roan near Babalala a few years ago and spent hours at Mokala observing young ones interacting with the rest of the family. I have searched all over Kruger to find Sable, eventually seeing the backsides of two bulls disappearing into the bush in the Talamati area; and I have spent quite a few hours watching the breeding herd at Mokala.

I also remember a bike trip in the Vaalwater area (an area I know very well) where I almost lost control of the RT when I saw Sable where I have never expected them to be next to the fence on a private game farm. On the way to Mokala (we took the long way round) I also saw numerous Sable - also on private game farms.

Fortunately I always preview what I wrote before posting it on the forum. Whilst I was typing the above Ifubesi mentioned in his post that Sanparks should work closely with private farmers. :thumbs_up: Lessons learned on both sides must be shared. I recall a story my dad told me years ago about a game farm that lost a prized Sable bull when they decided to add a few lion to the mix...........

Do a Google search on Roan and/or Sable breeding projects and you will be reading all day. Somehow we must tie it all together.

I thank you Friedrich for a very thought provoking post :clap:


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Fri Aug 31, 2012 9:36 pm 
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Gmlsmit, please read the posts again carefully. Nobody is shooting down Friedrich von Horsten's idea. Posing questions about an idea does not mean disagreeing with it. Anyone "that really cares" will in fact pose questions in order to make sure it is the correct way to go.


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Sat Sep 01, 2012 8:56 am 
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Dear gjorgi, please read my post very carefully and then of the others, then you may understand it better.

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Sat Sep 01, 2012 9:47 am 
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I agree with Imberbe, we should not forget why the Roan is so rare in Kruger at present. It was the water policies of the past that caused the population to plummet from around 450 to 30 in 15 years.

Quote:
Different explanations have been provided for the decline of Roan and its lack of subsequent recovery in the Kruger N.P. in South Africa (450 animals in 1986 to around 30 in 2001; Harrington et al. 1999; Grant et al. 2002). The most likely reason is increased predation pressure following the influx of grazers from artificial waterpoints (Knoop and Owen-Smith 2006).


Link here

Sometimes our best intentions have unwanted consequences. Releasing animals into areas where they have not been traditionally present will have an effect on the whole ecosystem. It might not be visible immediately, but years down the line you might regret your decision. We should be careful not to try and correct the problems and mistakes made in the past in Kruger by making the similar mistakes in another reserve at present.

Edited: Added more to post.

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Sun Sep 02, 2012 9:12 am 
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Predation, poaching and loss of habitat............

Let's remove predation from the above (300h enclosed area). Although poaching can in my mind never be removed completely, let's remove that one for the moment.

Only one left - loss of habitat?

There is no doubt that we must indeed learn from past mistakes in Kruger, but methinks we are running out of other options..............

On a lighter note, check out this lady. My SO reckons this Mokala lady looks like a donkey hybrid :wink:

Image


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 03, 2012 12:24 am 
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:lol: A beautiful donkey! I for one will spend some time with that donkey any day.

Nature is full of things we don't understand. Early reports actually indicate that Sable used to be common in the early KNP.

Antelope such as Roan and Lichtensteins probably never were? I suspect that KNP falls on the edge of their natural distribution, and probably does not offer an ideal ecology for them. If that is the case, we will probably never be able to create an unnatural population growth.

Most animals are a lot less adaptable than humans. They do not tend to thrive under less than ideal sircumstance and cannot change their environment to suit them. In heavily managed situations, you can often overcome some of those challenges by feeding, providing water and managing their health. But in a more natural system, it is much harder.

Another factor we can easily overlook is the "fence" factor. What is the influence on animal populations by these fences? We will probably never know. But it is a known fact that the wildebeest population of KNP used to have a naturall migration similar to those in the serengeti. It was stopped, with heavy loss of life, when the fence was erected on the western boundary. Elephants had a similar experience. What was the influence on other species?

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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 03, 2012 9:27 am 
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In the meantime, locating, vaccinating and preserving the remaining 70 of these noble animals should be top priority.

Just maybe SANParks should contact Dr. Salmon Joubert and get his input on this urgent matter, Hippotragus Equinis was the specie on which he based his doctorate.

Historically the Northern Plains had no natural perennial water resources and were inhabited by a variety of ‘low density’ species, notably Roan antelope, Tsessebe, Reedbuck and Eland, other species that inhabited the Northern Plains, but all in low densities, including Elephant, Buffalo, Wildebeest, Zebra and Kudu.

The KNP Management policy was that emphasis be placed on managing the ecosystems to maintain them in the most natural state possible. This is then based on the principle that animal numbers are regulated by the availability and suitability of the habitats and as and as such reflect the harmony brought forward about the interaction between habitats and animal populations.

In addressing the problem with habitat changes on the Northern Plains, and the consequent sharp declines in the Roan Antelope and Tsessebe populations, Joubert suggested that the following issues be addressed:

Primarily – the network of artificial watering points.

Secondary – the increase in Zebra and to a lesser extent Wildebeest populations – changes in the field layer as a result of increased populations of grazers – the sharp increase in the Lion population.

It was clear that the primary cause – the artificial watering points had to be addressed as well as the concomitant reduction of the animal populations (Zebra and Lion) as a result of the water points.

The advantage of this was that the removal of the primary and secondary causes could be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

The Lion and Wildebeest were numerous on the Northern Plains and a reduction of their numbers in this area would not have a significant impact on their overall population.

The Wildebeest and Lion populations would adjust to population limits in harmony with their habitats.

The vegetation would be able to recover in the shortest possible time, while the most favourable conditions for the survival of the low density species would be provided.

It was raised that this may be viewed negatively by the public.

Dr. Gus Mills mentioned in 1994 that in light of the higher than expected of the Lion density on the Northern Plains , the concern has been expressed may have been and still may be, an important contributory factor to the decline of the selective grazers. The Sable population began to decline in 1986, and the Roan and Tsessebe populations in 1987.

The Roan population had nearly halved by 1989 compared to the 1986 figures. Six Lion kills of Roan were reported by Rangers during the period 1987 to 1990.

He also reported that predator – prey relations are complex interactions, influenced by a suite of ecological and behavioural parameters, including rainfall. He also stated that this opportunity must be used to study the effects of windmill closure on as many important ecological parameters as possible.

As part of addressing the falling numbers of Roan Antelope Dr. Joubert on 12 July 1993, addressed a letter to Dr. P Mulder, the Chief Director, Nature and Environmental Conservation of the Transvaal Provincial Administration, in which he explained the situation and also mentioned that although climatic conditions are regarded as a major cause of the decline of the Roan Antelope population, it is also is possible that certain management programmes, in particular water provision and veld burning schedules, could have contributed to the decline. Comprehensive investigations, analyses and interpretation of all available data that could shed some light on the situation have been undertaken.

In light of the above it was decided to adapt some management approaches and to launch an intensive monitoring action to determine the trends of the Roan Antelope population and the influence of associated animal and environmental conditions. It was expected that with the onset of a higher rainfall period the Roan Antelope population could be expected to recover naturally. However if the decline in the population made this difficuilt or impossible Joubert requested Mulder if his Department could make a herd of 20 Roan Antelope available to the KNP.

On 2 August 1993 Dr. Mulder responded that due to commitment by the TPA, no Roan Antelope could be made available for a number of years.

Ranger Arrie Schreiber supported the release of a breeding herd of Roan into the N’wasitsumbe enclosure, preferably from the capture of peripheral stragglers. This was supported by Mills, Whyte and Viljoen.

At a Standing Committee meeting for Wildlife Management held on 15 February 1994 the following decisions regarding the Northern Plains were taken:

The 12 waterholes in the area should be closed without delay.
The Lichtensteins hartebeest had to be released from the N'washitsumbe enclosure and their movements monitored.
A number of Roan Antelope were to be caught on the periphery of the plains and released into the enclosure.
The results of the monitoring programme had to be reported to the Standing Committee for Wildlife Management on a monthly basis.
Intensive monitoring of the Roan Antelope, other low-density species and carnivores on the plains had to be continued
Funds had to made available for the upgrading of the enclosure.

Permission was received from the Chief Executive Director of National Parks, Dr. G Robinson to close the following water points: Hlamala-north, Brandwag, Hlamalala-south, N’washitsumbe-north, N’washitsumbe, Roan Camp, Vlakteplaas, Papanyana, Boyela-north, Nwarlanghari north, Morewag and Steenbokpan. By March 1994 all these water points were closed.

A number of additional projects were implemented:

Six additional rainfall gauges were installed on the Northern Plains – Brandwag, Shirombe, Roan Camp, Vlakteplaas, Trig Beacon and Mpenza.

Veld condition Assessment plots were increased from 27 to 44 it was noticed that the veld condition had improved much in the three years after the 1992 drought. The purpose of the exclosure plots were to determine the degree to which herbivore utilization influences veld conditions and phytomass trends. It was also recommended that lightning fires be allowed to take their course as in the rest of the Park. The Northern Plains had been exempted from this veld – burning policy due to the low phytomass following the drought.

Additional EAS counts were to be done annually to those on the Northern Plains at the end of the dry season (September), mid summer (December), late summer (March), Between August 1992 and March 1995 the number of Zebra declined from 2508 to 1381, Roan Antelope from 31 to 17, Tsessebe from 136 to 25 and Sable from 85 to 32.

It was also decided that the decline of Sable and Tsessebe, research and management actions similar to that of Roan should be investigated to tackle the problem.

Due to the difficulty in spotting Roan from the air it was decided that a Roan from the Langtoon herd be fitted with a radio collar. And that the data from the collared animal could be reviewed.

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I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
No to Legalized Rhino and Lion trade.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


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 Post subject: Re: Some "unscientific" ideas to save the Roan Antilope
Unread postPosted: Mon Sep 03, 2012 3:13 pm 
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:thumbs_up: gmlsmit - it is a privilege to participate on this thread and I again want to thank Friedrich for starting it.
Where is he hiding anyway? Start a controversial thread and ducks :twisted:

Now we are getting great information.

If they only collared one Langtoon Roan, it must have survived until my wife and I saw it during a visit in 2008 at one of the Nshawu drinking spots. The first Roan we ever spotted in Kruger 8)

OK, so in 1994 the water holes were closed and the 1995 stats are very scary.

What appears to be a gap in available information between 1995 and 2012 is what worries me.


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