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 Post subject: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Thu Jul 05, 2012 7:56 pm 
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Junior Virtual Ranger
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In the last post we discussed the four main drivers that determine the structure and composition of savannas such as the Kruger National Park. All savanna landscapes on the African continent can broadly be classified into two groups, irrespective of the interactions of the four drivers: Broad-leaved savannas and Fine-leaved savannas.

You will remember from the previous post that climate (and more specifically rainfall) has a major influence on savanna areas. This is especially true for areas at the extreme ends of the rainfall gradient. Very dry areas (close to 350 mm per annum) tend to develop into fine-leaved savannas. Similarly, wet savannas (above 700 mm per annum) normally fall within the broad-leaved group. The reason for this is the different physiological adaptations and ancestral origins of fine-leaved and broad-leaved trees.

Most fine-leaved trees probably originated in hot and dry climates. Small leaflets may have evolved to prevent excess water loss through transpiration. Due to sufficient access to the sun in their dry habitats, they also did not need large leaves for sufficient photosynthesis. You will also find that many fine-leaved trees have thorns or spikes for defense against herbivores. This has to do with the fact that drier environments are often associated with nutrient-rich soils. (The reasons for this will be discussed in more detail in future posts).

In contrast, broad-leaved trees probably evolved in wetter environments where sufficient available water did not make it necessary to decrease leaf size significantly. Wet environments normally go hand-in-hand with lots of cloudy days. Logically, a larger leaf size would also provide a tree with a larger surface area for sufficient photosynthesis. Broad-leaved trees normally rely on chemical defenses against herbivores. Once again, this type of defense is linked to the nutrient-poor soils normally found in moist areas.

Please keep in mind that abovementioned description of the origins of broad- and fine-leaved savanna trees are over-simplified, as there are never just a few simple explanations for the way things work in nature. But let us not get bogged down in too much technical detail and rather continue with the topic.

Most of Kruger falls in a rainfall zone which lies in-between the dry and wet extremes mentioned above. Therefore the soil properties take on a more important role in determining the savanna group that will develop in an area. At average rainfall levels, a landscape can develop into either broad-leaved or fine-leaved savanna depending on the underlying soil characteristics. Savannas in Kruger are therefore divided into nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor savannas.

In general, nutrient-rich areas consist of clay soil made up of very small particles which tend to prevent water from filtering through to underlying soil levels. The deeper soil conditions are therefore similar to arid environments due to little moisture availability. Logically, clay soils therefore tend to produce fine-leaved trees.

Image
Fine-leaved savanna near Satara, KNP

Nutrient-poor areas consist of sandy or shallow rocky soils with courser particles which allow water to filter through to deeper levels, resulting in higher moisture levels. The deeper soil conditions are therefore similar to the wet savannas and therefore produce more broad-leaved trees.

Image
Broad-leaved savanna at Jones' Dam, KNP

Once again, this is an over-simplified description of the split between fine-leaved and broad-leaved landscapes in Kruger, but you get the idea :) .

Of course, in nature there are always exceptions to the rule. Just when you think you know exactly which plants will grow where, along comes the Mopane to challenge your logic. In later posts we will discuss why the broad-leaved Mopane dominates areas where you should expect to find fine-leaved trees…

A last important concept worth mentioning in this post is the Catena. All landscapes undergo weathering through the passage of time but in some landscapes the effect of the weathering is more pronounced. In areas underlain by very old rocks such as granite (like the western portion of Kruger) you find an undulating landscape with endless crests, slopes and valleys. The working of wind, rain and gravity over millions of years has resulted in rock minerals moving and leaching from the crests, down the slopes and into the valley bottoms. Therefore you normally find sandy, nutrient poor soils on crests and clayey, richer soils in the valleys. You guessed it: the result is broad-leaved trees on the crests and fine-leaved trees in the valleys. This sequence from crest, down the slopes to the valley bottom is called a Catena. All Kruger landscapes and indeed all savannas, exhibit the catena sequence. However, as mentioned earlier, the catenas in areas underlain by granites are more pronounced and more clearly visible.

Image
Diagram of Catena in Kruger

The different ecological implications and workings of broad-leaved and fine-leaved savannas makes for very interesting reading. Therefore I will focus more on this when discussing specific Kruger landscapes in upcoming posts.

Your homework: Try to identify Catenas during your drives in Kruger. There are many good examples in the Park, for instance the H1-2 from Skukuza towards Tshokwane (the first section of road before the S36 turn-off).

References:
Eckhardt, Holger & Scholes, Robert & Venter, Freek. The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of savanna heterogeneity, Chapter 5: The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern. Washington DC-USA: Island Press, 2003. Print.

Hendry, O. Kruger Ecozone Map (drawing of Catena). Johannesburg: Jacana Media, 2004. Print

Scholes, Robert and Walker, B.H. An African Savanna: Synthesis of the Nylsvley study. . Cambridge-UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Thu Jul 05, 2012 9:36 pm 
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Junior Virtual Ranger
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Wow thanks - great to be taught all of this before my upcoming mid August, debut Kruger visit!

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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Fri Jul 06, 2012 6:28 am 
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That is so interesting. Thank you so much. :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Fri Jul 06, 2012 6:52 am 
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Thank you Ifubesi, it is very illuminating to read why there are fine-leaved trees in certain areas and broad-leaved trees in other areas. I also find the concept of a Catena very interesting, and will definitely try to identify them during our next visit in September! :thumbs_up:

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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Sat Jul 07, 2012 11:39 am 
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Keep up the good work ifubesi!!


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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Tue Jul 10, 2012 1:38 pm 
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Fascinating - thank you Ifubesi :thumbs_up:


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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Tue Jul 10, 2012 1:52 pm 
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Thanks for the effort you have put into this Ifubesi. You explain it in a way that even I understand.

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 Post subject: Re: Kruger Ecology 3 : Broad-leaved & Fine-leaved
Unread postPosted: Tue Jul 10, 2012 9:25 pm 
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:clap: :clap: Again you have explained this so well!

One thing that is interesting with nutrient poor versus nutrient rich savannas is how they also influence fire regimes or in general just landscape structure. so as you can imagine fires are essential components in savanna ecosystems (Im sure Ifubesi will go more into that in another brilliant post!) as they are responsible for aiding germination in many species but fires also release nutrients caught up in excess moribund (dried/senesced grass, dead trees, leaf litter etc) and cucle this back into the soil to maintain the major nutrient cycles. The frequency of and intensity of fires is influenced by the type of savanna. Nutrient rich savannas will produce vegetation which is relatively rich in nutrients in comparison with nutrient poor savannas resulting in herbivores foraging more heavily in these regions as they select for food of a higher nutrient quality. Consequently the nutrient rich regions have higher grazing pressure, comparatively lower grass biomass and therefore less fuel for a fire. This means nutrient rich savannas will in general experience less frequent as well as less intense fires than nutrient poor regions.

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