Skip to content

SANParks.org Forums

View unanswered posts | View active topics






Post new topic Reply to topic  Page 80 of 84
 [ 1257 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84  Next
Author Message
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Tue Nov 12, 2013 10:25 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
Francoisd,

You stats are very useful and put things into perspective. From what you say, around 450 visitors a year contract malaria in KNP based on approximately a million visitors.

Does rural Mozambique pose a risk as a source of the mosquitos travelling to KNP, or are the distances too far?

According to the website of The London School of Tropical Medicine, that works together with the Universities of Pretoria and Cape Town, there could be a vaccine as early as 2014.

Bill and Belinda Gates of Microsoft have financially supported the research to find a vaccine for malaria.

In the tests so far, vaccination appears to last for 18 months and small children can be vaccinated.

What a difference to child mortality.


Last edited by missings.a.! on Tue Nov 12, 2013 10:45 am, edited 2 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Tue Nov 12, 2013 10:32 am 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Thu Dec 23, 2004 1:38 pm
Posts: 1937
Another interessting read from which the quote below was taken is the Health Systems Trust's 2000 report on malaria. It is worthy to note the tremedous increase in malaria incidence in KZN after DDT spraying was stopped due to the presence of the pyrethroid resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes. (see graph on page 5 of document)

Quote:
Vector control
The general success of the malaria control programme in South Africa to date is largely due to intensive vector control. Historically, the major vectors of malaria in this country were An. arabiensis and possibly An. gambiae, members of the An. gambiae group, and An. funestus of the An. funestus group. Individual species of each group are indistinguishable morphologically but differ in their resting and biting behaviours, which are relevant for malaria vector control. Indoor house spraying of insecticides was first started in 1932, DDT being used from 1946 onwards, and complete coverage was achieved by 1958. After the introduction of house spraying, An. gambiae and An. funestus were eliminated from all the provinces where they previously occurred, leaving only An. arabiensis as the local vector. In 1996 DDT was replaced by synthetic pyrethroids due to mounting international pressure to have DDT banned. An increasing number of donor agencies would not fund malaria control programmes using DDT, even though the World Health Organisation still supported its use in public health. Unfortunately Anopheles funestus has recently been re-discovered in KwaZulu-Natal and has also been found to be resistant to synthetic pyrethroids. Resistance in this species was also found in neighbouring areas in Mozambique, where no vector control had been carried out at all. e This species, due to its habit of breeding in permanent water bodies rather than temporary puddles, tends to be associated with all-year transmission, a possible contribution to the tremendous increase in winter malaria observed over the past few years. In the winter of 1999 the control programme in KwaZulu-Natal therefore re-sprayed all houses in this region with DDT, and it will be used for the 2000-2001 malaria season as well. Pyrethroids will be used in the other two malaria-affected provinces of Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

_________________
"The measure of life is not its duration but its donation." - Peter Marshall
www.flickr.com/groups/birdssa


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Tue Nov 12, 2013 4:29 pm 
Offline

Joined: Mon Nov 11, 2013 2:49 pm
Posts: 5
Have not read all the correspondence but a friend contracted Malaria from a June visit...so its possible to get at any time of year....obviously some eyars are worse than others!

:sniper:


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Wed Nov 13, 2013 2:15 pm 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
francoisd wrote:
missings.a.! wrote:
From what you say, around 450 visitors a year contract malaria in KNP based on approximately a million visitors.

Rather from what the research article say :) and do remember that it was done during a period when there was a marked increase in malaria cases, since 1998 the annual total of cases decreased close to three times so assume the number of cases of travelers to KNP contracting malaria have also decreases significantly.

I don't think that the rural areas of Mozambique play a large part as most are to far and on some parts there are "mountains" in the way. I rather think that humans travelling between the countries or from higher risk areas in SA play the largest role as reservoir hosts that then serve as source of infection for the mosquitoes. But then again I am not a malaria researcher.



Thanks Francoisd.

I did think that the numbers may be smaller but then again, maybe some people are not reporting back.

The fact is though that as you said, visitors must make the effort to protect themselves.

Just read in the Wall Street Journal that the President's fund, set up by GW Bush, donates Malaria medication free of charge to Sub Saharan African countries and around 15% of the medication is being stolen and sold on the black market in other countries.

Prophylaxis intended for Tanzania is available for sale on the streets of Angola.

A problem is if the drugs are not stored in the correct temperature, it can reduce their efficacy and help to create further immunity to the drug.


Last edited by missings.a.! on Wed Nov 13, 2013 3:49 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 8:27 am 
Offline

Joined: Thu Nov 14, 2013 1:53 pm
Posts: 67
I know of only two people who contracted Malaria in the last 10 years. One friend went for a golf tour to Palaborwa and was there for only one day. Got diagnosed with sun stroke to weeks later, by the time they realised it was malaria he already had black water fever. Luckily he survived but it took months/years to properly recover. Then we have a house in Sabie park right at the Kruger gate which we share with friends. Because we go so often we don't take any prophylaxis, just use the normal bug spray etc. About 4 years ago the co-owners wife contracted malaria. So we are really careful and vigilant especially in summer.

Then this probably doesn't count, my cousins all grew up in Skukuza/Pafuri so they all contracted malaria as kids but this was in the early 90's, so many moons ago. My aunt however contracted bilharzia when living there and it only showed symptoms and got diagnosed almost 20 years later.

I guess at the end of the day you just got to be careful and keep watch should you get sick.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 8:57 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
RemiE wrote:
Herman wrote:
francoisd wrote:
For the life cycle of the malaria parasite you need some of the following; a mosquito vector and a human infected with the malaria parasite. The larger the concentration of infected humans the greater the chance that you will find infected mosquitoes and linked to it the greater the chance of being infected. You therefor stand a greater chance of getting malaria visiting a town bordering Kruger than in a rest camp such as Satara.


Only humans or any mammal ?


Would really appreciate if someone could shed some light on this... :hmz:


From the Malaria Vaccine Initiative website.

Quote:
Malaria vaccine researchers also need challenge models. Given that P. falciparum malaria does not naturally infect commonly used laboratory animals, developing a challenge model for the malaria parasite has required special centers where human volunteers are deliberately infected or “challenged” with malaria to observe whether a candidate vaccine can prevent or delay an infection. In this regard, MVI is supporting the Malaria Clinical Trials Center at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, one of only half a dozen facilities of its kind worldwide. (See Sidebar: MVI Invests in Human Challenge Center).


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 9:01 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
Testing on healthy human volunteers


Quote:
Sidebar: MVI Invests in Human Challenge Center

Once a malaria vaccine candidate has been tested for safety in a small number of healthy adult volunteers, some candidates may undergo a “challenge” phase of testing. Under this model, volunteers vaccinated with a malaria vaccine candidate are deliberately “challenged” with malaria through the bites of malaria-infected mosquitoes to assess whether or not the candidate vaccine can prevent or delay malaria infection.

This human challenge phase of malaria vaccine development can provide researchers with valuable information to decide whether or not to move a vaccine candidate forward for testing on a larger scale, including testing in malaria-endemic regions of the world. MVI has collaborated with the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (Seattle BioMed) to establish a center devoted to testing the safety and efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates in humans. The Malaria Clinical Trials Center at Seattle BioMed is one of only a handful of facilities of its kind worldwide.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 9:11 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
From Duke Medical School and Medical Research Centre

Absorption of DDT by human beings.


Quote:
Human Beings

In the early to mid 1950s, DDT became one of the most widely used pesticides. This was when we thought it was completely harmless to human beings. When we originally used it to control lice, people were unaffected even though they were in direct contact with the pesticides.


One of the reasons why the DDT did not affect people is because it is difficult for DDT to be absorbed through human skin.

Eventually, we realized that some DDT was staying in our bodies.

DDT was being used in the environment, on agricultural products, and on livestock. In the 1960's, concern arose about the widespread use of DDT and it's effects on humans.

A study in 1968 showed that Americans were consuming an average of 0.025 milligrams of DDT per day!



So the real cause for concern was spraying crops and livestock with DDT and thereby swallowing large amounts of DDT, but if the DDT is used as a spray in the home, it cannot be absorbed by humans through the skin.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 15, 2013 11:48 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
Koen wrote:
missings.a.! wrote:
if the DDT is used as a spray in the home, it cannot be absorbed by humans through the skin.


Samples taken where DDT is used on walls exterior and interiors show people in the area have unacceptable high levels of DDT in their blood. Birth defects like cretinism are far above national averages, children stop suckling prematurely, men become sterile......certain cancers are common.

There is no argument DDT is dangerous, short term less so than Malaria, yes absolutely.

I think though personaly I would like to know when my hut was last sprayed if it was at all with DDT?

I think we have the right to decide if we want to be exposed or not, simple.


You have called forumites stalkers so I do not want to get too involved but we have a duty not to scare people from accepting something that can prevent very serious diseases.

Other forumites have asked questions and these are the facts from the research of legitimate organisations.

The main focus of Duke University's report is concern for eating food sprayed with DDT and the thinning of egg shells of raptors -since that report, the number of raptors has grown and they are healthy.

The very respected universities of Pretoria and Cape Town work as one team with other organisations from around the world, to focus on the scourge that is malaria, tuberculosis, dengue fever and other diseases that seriously effect poorer countries, especially in Africa.

Just my opinion, but I do not think for one minute their professors and researchers would support a spray that caused "birth defects like cretinism are far above national averages, children stop suckling prematurely, men become sterile......certain cancers are common".

There is plenty on the internet and I have been amazed at the determined effort of organisations from different countries to work together.

Let us hope the anti poaching drive can achieve the same.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 3:57 am 
Offline

Joined: Mon Oct 07, 2013 11:54 am
Posts: 120
The public should be 100% aware and able to make the decision for themselves if they wish to be exposed to DDT in any form.

If Sanparks is using DDT in visitor accomadation the visitor has a right know.

The issue of how toxic DDT indeed is, is too lenghy to do justice here.

Im not writting a thesis on the matter and all quotes and references are omitted but as you ask maybe reading the following will help. This is not even taking into account the damage to the environment just us.


People living in areas where DDT is used for indoor residual spraying have high levels of the chemical and its breakdown products in their bodies. Compared to contemporaries living where DDT is not used. South Africans living in sprayed homes have levels that are several orders of magnitude greater. Breast milk in regions where DDT is used against malaria greatly exceeds the allowable standards for breast-feeding infants.These levels are associated with neurological abnormalities in babies.

Most studies of DDT's human health effects have been conducted in developed countries where DDT is not used and exposure is relatively low. Many experts urge that alternatives be used instead of IRS.Epidemiologist Brenda Eskenazi argues, "We know DDT can save lives by repelling and killing disease-spreading mosquitoes. But evidence suggests that people living in areas where DDT is used are exposed to very high levels of the pesticide. The only published studies on health effects conducted in these populations have shown profound effects on male fertility. Clearly, more research is needed on the health of populations where indoor residual spraying is occurring, but in the meantime, DDT should really be the last resort against malaria rather than the first line of defense."

Illegal diversion to agriculture is also a concern, as it is almost impossible to prevent, and its subsequent use on crops is uncontrolled. For example, DDT use is widespread in Indian agriculture,particularly mango production, and is reportedly used by librarians to protect books. Other examples include Ethiopia, where DDT intended for malaria control is reportedly being used in coffee production, and Ghana where it is used for fishing."The residues in crops at levels unacceptable for export have been an important factor in recent bans in several tropical countries. Adding to this problem is a lack of skilled personnel and supervision.

Several recent studies demonstrate a link between in utero exposure to DDT or DDE and developmental neurotoxicity in humans. A 2006 University of California, Berkeley study found that children exposed while in the womb have a greater chance of development problems, and other studies have found that even low levels of DDT or DDE in umbilical cord serum at birth are associated with decreased attention at infancy and decreased cognitive skills at 4 years of age. Similarly, Mexican researchers have linked first trimester DDE exposure to retarded psychomotor development.

DDT is associated with early pregnancy loss, a type of miscarriage. A prospective cohort study of Chinese textile workers found "a positive, monotonic, exposure-response association between preconception serum total DDT and the risk of subsequent early pregnancy losses. The median serum DDE level of study group was lower than that typically observed in women living in homes sprayed with DDT.

DDT and DDE have been positively linked to diabetes. A number of recent studies from the US, Canada, and Sweden have found that the prevalence of the disease in a population increases with serum DDT or DDE levels.

2007, a Japanese study of congenital hypothyroidism concluded that in utero DDT exposure may affect thyroid hormone levels and "play an important role in the incidence and/or causation of cretinism. Other studies have also found that DDT or DDE interfere with proper thyroid function.

More recent evidence 2009 from epidemiological studies (i.e. studies in human populations and indoor residual indoor spraying) indicates that DDT causes cancers of the liver,pancreas and breast..........















http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT


Last edited by Koen on Tue Nov 19, 2013 6:35 am, edited 1 time in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 9:54 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
I do not work for Sanparks and I do not object at all if they spray a hut where I stay in KNP. Most of the United States and Europe AND South Africa (in residential areas), eliminated malaria through DDT.


South Africa contributes to the World Health Organisation and there are plenty of statistics on the WHO website and South African Universities work with The London School of Tropical Diseases and the Centre for Disease Control in the United States on the campaign to eliminate malaria.

Malaria kills not only more than 600 thousand people a year mostly in Sub Saharan Africa, hundreds of millions contract every year. Which means those countries where malaria is endemic, cannot raise their standard of living with so many of their people very ill and unable to contribute to the economy. Key facts

FROM THE WEBSITE OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION[/b]

Quote:
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
In 2010, malaria caused an estimated 660 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 490 000 to 836 000), mostly among African children.
Malaria is preventable and curable.
Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.
Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected.


According to the latest estimates, there were about 219 million cases of malaria in 2010 (with an uncertainty range of 154 million to 289 million) and an estimated 660 000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 490 000 to 836 000). Malaria mortality rates have fallen by more than 25% globally since 2000, and by 33% in the WHO African Region. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every minute from malaria. Country-level burden estimates available for 2010 show that an estimated 80% of malaria deaths occur in just 14 countries and about 80% of cases occur in 17 countries. Together, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria account for over 40% of the estimated total of malaria deaths globally.


Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.
Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the disease when they get infected.
[/quote]

Both the United States AND Europe eliminated malaria through use of DDT!!

Read the World Health Organisations website and the London School of Tropical Medicine (that coordinates work of all countries).


Last edited by missings.a.! on Mon Nov 18, 2013 2:21 pm, edited 2 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 10:52 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jul 21, 2009 2:52 pm
Posts: 1157
Location: London
From the website of the United States official CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION.

The Elimination of Malaria in the United States (1947 — 1951)


The National Malaria Eradication Program was a cooperative undertaking by state and local health agencies of 13 southeastern states and the Communicable Disease Center of the U. S. Public Health Service, originally proposed by Dr. L. L. Williams. The program commenced operations on July 1, 1947.

It consisted primarily of DDT application to the interior surfaces of rural homes or entire premises in counties where malaria was reported to have been prevalent in recent years. By the end of 1949, more than 4,650,000 house spray applications had been made. It also included drainage, removal of mosquito breeding sites, and spraying (occasionally from aircrafts) of insecticides.

Total elimination of transmission of malaria was slowly achieved[.
In 1949, the country was declared free of malaria as a significant public health problem. By 1951, CDC gradually withdrew from active participation in the operational phases of the program and shifted its interest to surveillance, and in 1952, CDC participation in operations ceased altogether.

The role of CDC became one of surveillance within the U. S. and of assistance in the world-wide efforts to eliminate or control malaria in the economically underdeveloped areas of the world.

Enough already.


Last edited by missings.a.! on Mon Nov 18, 2013 1:53 pm, edited 1 time in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Mon Nov 18, 2013 12:57 pm 
Offline
Moderator
Moderator
User avatar

Joined: Sun Jan 16, 2005 3:19 pm
Posts: 8593
Location: Portsmouth, England
Polite reminder.

Whenever you are quoting, either from this forum or external sources, please remember to link back to your source. Its good manners, good netiquette and follows the rules of this forum.

SANParks wrote:

25. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden. When copying materials from other sources, strict citation guidelines apply. (Refer this Manual). When referencing from social networks like Facebook, Twitter, etc. screenshot of the original source must be embedded within the post. In addition, linking to smilies or images hosted by a third-party website is not allowed, unless the members have a prior permission to do so.



Taken from RULES for posting on the SANParks Forums

Any post not following these rules runs the risk of being removed.

If anyone has problems with how to create links then please PM any Moderator or Forum Assistant, who will be delighted to help you.

_________________
The GREAT 2015 Online Auction is here. Get your bids in soon, it won't be around for ever.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 22, 2013 11:45 am 
Offline
Virtual Ranger
Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Fri Mar 10, 2006 11:07 am
Posts: 224
Location: Not even I know!
Just my two cents worth... :-)

I contracted malaria camping at Balule in 1997 whilst travelling with friends. I did take prophylactics as prescribed by our family doctor. I wouldn't say that the warning signs for my case would be the same for everyone - but this was my experience.

About a week and half later, when I was supposed to be studying for exams I began experiencing flu-like symptoms that seemed to get worse as the day went on, but by morning I would feel ok-ish again. (Tough to convince your mom that you are sick and can't study when you wake up looking ok...) The back, shoulder and muscle ache along with the fever chills were pretty bad.

A couple of nights after that - I had an intense fever and passed out in the passage. I was taken by ambulance to Sandton Clinic (JHB) and spent a week in the ICU and a further week in another ward. I was diagnosed with cerebral malaria, and the few memories I have of the incident include the multitude of drips and other pipes attached to my body, not being able to keep any food down, drifting in and out of consciousness (always waking up with some new visitor reading my magazines!) The only positive of the experience was that I missed all of my exams :-D

I still visit KNP as often as I can (sadly not as often as I would like) - and while I don't take prophylactics anymore (please note - not taking prophylactics is my choice - and not to be taken as any sort of advice), I make sure that i cover up, use repellents and most importantly of all - if i feel ANY sort of flu like symptoms - i make sure to have a malaria blood test - that bit IS advice. :-) Malaria is definitely not something you'd wish on anyone - and it is serious business.

_________________
Duke Pack Member- Mapoisa Mat²
Alrighty then!
I refuse to fight a battle of wits with an unarmed person


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Have you or anyone you know contracted malaria in KNP?
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 22, 2013 2:49 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Mon Aug 01, 2005 8:18 pm
Posts: 322
Location: Midrand
Glad you pulled through Matthew!

Just to expand - Cerebral malaria is the same organism as "normal" malaria, but shows its effect on the brain, including bleeding. That is what makes it so dangerous. Everybody has different reactions , or at least different organs that are affected. so while some have severe kidney issues (black water fever) others don't. One form can change to another very easily.

Also note the waxing/waning of the symptoms - the malaria organism is a very clever little thing in that it changes its "cover" regularly. So your body makes antibodies to the organism's protein cover A , and starts winning the fight (you feel feverish, have signs) , the number of organisms decreases (you feel better) BUT then it changes to surface protein B and your immune system doesn't recognise it and doesn't kill it. and so the process starts again with your immune cells making antibody to protein B and fighting the organism .......... and then C .....

Why the long story? IF YOU HAVE FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS WITHIN 2-3 WEEKS OF BEING IN A MALARIA AREA , HAVE YOURSELF PROPERLY TESTED!

_________________
Spring is sprung, Der grass is riz, I wonder where dem boidies is?
Der boids is on der wing,
Ain't dat absoid?
Der wings is on de boid!


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 1257 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84  Next



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group

Webcams Highlights

Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Submitted by Shiba at 06:41:34 Submitted by Foxy at 08:18:05 Submitted by ritad at 07:16:29 Submitted by ritad at 06:42:15