Skip to content

SANParks.org Forums

View unanswered posts | View active topics






Post new topic Reply to topic  Page 5 of 5
 [ 69 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Author Message
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Mon Oct 29, 2012 3:23 pm 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Wed Aug 31, 2005 12:28 am
Posts: 14136
Location: Pretoria, RSA
Yes, that would be an option to buy more cows.

Just speculating now: You probably would have to buy a whole herd of cows and re-introduce them in to a new area with all the risk and cost involved. You would not be able to simply increase the current herd size with more cows as this is not allowed by the social system within the herd. The dominant bull would remain dominant and would probably still drive the extra bull out.

Not knowing the exact details it is difficult to do more than speculate.

_________________
Imberbe = Combretum imberbe = Leadwood = Hardekool = The spirit of the Wildernis!

Want to know more about the SANParks Honorary Rangers? Visit www.sanparkshr.org


One positive deed is worth more than a thousand critical words.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Mon Oct 29, 2012 3:44 pm 
Offline
User avatar

Joined: Thu Mar 31, 2011 10:29 am
Posts: 315
That will be a good idea to start a new herd in a new camp. But roan are not the cheapest antelope around so buying a herd of cows might not be an option. Maybe trade a bull for a few cows.... Even young cows that cannot bread yet. They can mature in one of the camps.

_________________
Not in Kruger.... Busy planning the next trip...


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Mon Oct 29, 2012 4:33 pm 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger

Joined: Sat Jan 15, 2005 1:29 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Durban, Kwa Zulu Natal, SA
One also needs to introduce antelope that are predator aware! It would be most unfortunate were this not the case as they would simply be taken out by lion, leopard and hyaena!

_________________
NO BAIL - JAIL AND NO TRADE IN RHINO HORN EVER!
NO TO BUILDING OF HOTELS IN THE KRUGER NATIONAL PARK
6 & 7 Jan 2014 at Amakhosi Safari Lodge
8 & 9 Jan 2014 at Elephant Walk
10 to 17 January 2014 Ngwenya Lodge
The addiction is fed once again


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Mon Oct 29, 2012 4:55 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Mon Dec 11, 2006 1:45 pm
Posts: 4953
Location: southern gauteng
gmlsmit wrote:
I“Ref: 02/1/5/2


DRAFT REPLY APPROVED/AMENDED

MRS B E E MOLEWA, MP
MINISTER OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS

DATE:

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
(For written reply)
QUESTION NO. 2784
INTERNAL QUESTION PAPER NO. 32 NW3433E

DATE OF PUBLICATION: 12 October 2012

Mrs M Wenger (DA) to ask the Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs:
(1) Whether, with reference to the media statement by SANParks on 28 August 2012 about the death of 30 roan antelope while in an enclosure in the northern part of the Kruger National Park, the exact cause of death has been established; if not, why not; if so, what are the relevant details;
(2) whether an investigation has been conducted to determine whether human error contributed to the death of the antelope; if not, why not; if so, (a) what are the relevant details and (b) how will such deaths of roan antelope be avoided in future;
(3) what is the estimated population of roan antelope in the Kruger National Park after the death of the 30 antelope?

Mrs M Wenger (DA)
SECRETARY TO PARLIAMENT
HANSARD
PRESS

2784. THE MINISTER OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS ANSWERS:

(1) The cause of death of a total of 45 roan antelope in the Capricorn Breeding Enclosure was confirmed as anthrax. Anthrax, which is endemic to the Kruger National Park (KNP), is a highly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. There is currently an outbreak of anthrax in the northern parts of the KNP.
(2) Yes, an investigation has been conducted which suggests that the deaths of the antelope could have been avoided through better monitoring of the camp and its drinking troughs. In future, the camp will be inspected twice per week, drinking troughs will be covered with branches during the day to prevent vultures from using it, and the troughs will be regularly cleaned and disinfected when anthrax is known to be in the area.
(3) There are currently 13 roan antelope remaining in the Capricorn Breeding Enclosure, 35 in the Nwaswishumbe Breeding Enclosure, and an estimated 40-50 free roaming animals.”

Unquote.

The Minister stated that the camp will be inspected twice per week and that the drinking troughs will be covered with branches during the day to prevent vultures from using it. My question about this now is, does this mean that the enclosures at both Capricorn and Nwaswishumbe be visited twice per day, early morning to cover the troughs and then late afternoon to remove the branches in order to allow the animals to drink.

Please draw your own conclusion about how this was handled.

I am still continuing with my request for a thorough investigation about this matter to be carried out by experts in the field.


Can it be safely assumed that the persons (s) responsible for (not) monitoring and overseeing this essential task resulting in the loss of 45 roan are competent to be entrusted with this task ?

_________________
KNP is sacred. I am opposed to the modernisation of Kruger and from the depths of my soul long for the Kruger of yesteryear! 1000+km on foot in KNP incl 56 wild trails.200+ nights in the wildernessndloti-indigenous name for serval.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Thu Nov 01, 2012 8:20 am 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 25, 2007 4:52 pm
Posts: 2370
Location: VEREENIGING
With reference whether the roan die-off could have been avoided the following:

Many years ago there was a picket close (1 km) from the enclosure with field rangers stationed there. Their primary responsibility was to patrol the enclosure on a daily basis. After these patrols they could patrol further afield.

There was a die-off of roan in this enclosure in 1971, due to anthrax. Anthrax was then known to have occurred over large areas of the northern extremes of the KNP, including the major areas occupied by the roan. However. it was never considered a major threat to the animals in the enclosure. The die-off resulted in the institution of a range of precautionary measures, in particular the annual inoculation, which was highly effective (this included not only the animals in the enclosure but also the free-living herds).

The major difference between the 1971 outbreak and the present one is the fact that the present generation of managers have (had) all these experiences and lessons at their disposal but did not even consider it necessary to conduct daily patrols, let alone any other precautionary measures.

The anthrax outbreak in the immediate environs of the Capricorn enclosure about three years ago (though not in the enclosure) should have served as a wake-up call and had this been heeded there is little doubt that the present die-off could have been averted.

Other dangers to which the roan were subjected was over-population. From the Minister’s info to Parliament there were close to 60 roan in the enclosure. Roan are a “low-density” species that feed on the top parts of grass tussocks and inflorescence. It is therefore not always easy for the untrained eye to see when roan are in “over-grazed” situations but this, together with social stress could have made them much more vulnerable to the anthrax (and possibly other diseases).

Roan have fixed home ranges with suitable surroundings close to water. The dominant bull does not defend its territory, it defends the herd against any intruders. The herd is led by a matriarch that had established dominance over the other animals in the herd.

Young bulls are driven out of the herd by the dominant bull at the age of about two years, where they then live in bachelor groups or solitary lives.

It is also interesting to know that Roan cows come into season soon after giving berth - normally three to four weeks after the vent. a single calf is then dropped after a gestation period of 280 days, making Roan of the most prolific breeders of the antelope species.

It is also important to note that it is known that Roan and Sable have on the rare occasion interbred, both being of the Hippotraqus - members of the Hippotraginae subfamily.

Scientists are of the opinion that there are two sub-species of these beautiful animals in South Africa, the eastern sub-specie in the KNP and the western sub-specie in the western areas of our country which could include the Mokala National Park.

Therefore it is very important to ensure to which species the animals belong to before introducing new animals to an area, or establishing a new herd.

Maybe I moving a bit off topic here but some may regard the above as relevant

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Thu Nov 01, 2012 12:45 pm 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 25, 2007 4:52 pm
Posts: 2370
Location: VEREENIGING
From an expert - not me:

Though research has revealed that anthrax has been prevalent throughout most of the KNP since the earliest years of the Park, the first outbreak in more recent times was recorded in 1959. Subsequent outbreaks were recorded in 1960, 1970, 1990, 1991, 1992 and 1993. Smaller outbreaks were recorded on a more regular basis in the Luvuvhu River basin, which was regarded as an anthrax enzootic area.
Roan antelope and kudu proved to be particularly susceptible to anthrax and kudu, due to their larger numbers and wide distribution were identified as primarily responsible for maintaining it. Deaths were recorded for several species, at widely varying intensities, while a few – notably sable antelope and tsessebe (possible others as well) – appeared to be immune to anthrax.
Roan antelope are a “low-density” species due to their ecological sensitivities (habitat and grazing preferences, social organisation and reproductive adaptations). For this reason special precautions were taken to protect them from anthrax. These included:
• Burning of caracasses (all species);
• Disinfecting water points;
• Increased patrols to monitor animal carcasses and other signs of anthrax;
• Motivations for the appointment of a veterinarian to the KNP;
• Requesting Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute to develope a vaccine that could be administered orally;
• The establishment of an anthrax research station at Pafuri and the initiation of research projects on roan antelope, vultures and blow-flies;
• The appointment of a research technician to monitor the most infected areas for signs of anthrax activity, and
• The initiation of annual inoculation operations, including free-roaming roan and those in the enclosure, in the major concentration areas of roan. The annual inoculation was terminated in 1992 following the severest drought in the history of the KNP and the sharp drop in roan numbers (for fear of accidents/death during inoculation).
• During the late 1980’s a system for mass inoculations was established to combat anthrax outbreaks and other disease epidemics.
From the above it is clear that a very high priority was placed on ensuring the safety of the roan antelope, the most endangered large mammal in South Africa. This is in sharp contrast to what has recently transpired in the KNP when a total of 45 roan died of anthrax in a special enclosure for the purpose of breeding rare antelope.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 02, 2012 10:01 am 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Fri Jan 02, 2009 9:14 am
Posts: 2380
Location: Pretoria, South Africa
gmlsmit wrote:
From the above it is clear that a very high priority was placed on ensuring the safety of the roan antelope, the most endangered large mammal in South Africa. This is in sharp contrast to what has recently transpired in the KNP when a total of 45 roan died of anthrax in a special enclosure for the purpose of breeding rare antelope.

Yes gmlsmit, I agree 100% with you on this!


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Thu Nov 08, 2012 9:06 pm 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Wed Aug 31, 2005 12:28 am
Posts: 14136
Location: Pretoria, RSA
How easy it is to forget that those same rangers need to spend their time nowadays to fight a poaching war.

They don't have the time to get to all the other needs as regularly as they should ideally be able to.

That is a part of the harsh reality and the bigger price being paid during this war.

_________________
Imberbe = Combretum imberbe = Leadwood = Hardekool = The spirit of the Wildernis!

Want to know more about the SANParks Honorary Rangers? Visit www.sanparkshr.org


One positive deed is worth more than a thousand critical words.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Anthrax outbreak in the north of the KNP
Unread postPosted: Fri Nov 09, 2012 7:15 am 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 25, 2007 4:52 pm
Posts: 2370
Location: VEREENIGING
In defense yes Imberbe. Please do not try and convince me that there wasn't sufficient time or manpower to visit the camp more regularly than it had been. Also wait for the latest news about Rhino poaching to break.

_________________
I participate because I care - CUSTOS NATURAE
No to Hotels in and commercialization of our National Parks.
Done 144 visits to National Parks.
What a wonderful privilege.


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 69 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1, 2, 3, 4, 5



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group

Webcams Highlights

Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Submitted by Jurie van Vuuren at 12:26:03 Submitted by Stampajane at 07:13:32 Submitted by Stampajane at 19:37:35 Submitted by ShapeShifter at 12:01:14