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Drinking Water

Discuss and find information on the Kruger National Park
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Re: How safe is the water to drink?

Unread postby Trentonskeeper » Thu Nov 22, 2012 9:00 pm

Ok thanks everyone, feel much better now about the water. Will look at a filter system too. Excellent idea. :)

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Son godin
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Re: How safe is the water to drink?

Unread postby Son godin » Fri Nov 23, 2012 9:28 pm

I found an article on terrorist attacks on water sources and how the army ensure the water will be safe for their troops to use. One of the biological attack investigated was anthrax. They found that a good filtration system can remove the spores in water and standard water treatment chlorination will effectively kill it. I assume SANParks will make use of filtration and chlorination to puritfy water and would therefore feel safe to drink the water.

We however mainly use the tap water for coffee and not for direct drinking. Its just our habit, but its only to KTP that I bring my bottled water along.

Hope you will find the short quote interesting. ... supply.htm

A recent medical review stated the following regarding possible biological agents: "The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) has issued consensus reviews on five agents it considers the most likely candidates for a biological attack: anthrax, botulinum toxin, plague, smallpox, and tularemia. The reviews include the history of each agent, its epidemiology, diagnosis, vaccination, and therapy options, and links to additional research."

Of the 5 agents agents discussed by the JAMA articles, only two - Anthrax spores and Francisella tularensis - are capable of surviving in water. Anthrax spores can be filtered effectively by a good sub-micron filtration system. Francisella tularensis would be more difficult to filter with a standard home filter, unless it can effectively remove particles in the 0.1 - 0.2 micron size, but standard water treatment chlorination will effectively kill it.

Anthrax-There is little information available about the risks of direct contamination of food or water with anthrax spores. Although human infections have been reported, experimental efforts to infect primates by direct gastrointestinal instillation of anthrax spores have not been successful..... Vegetative bacteria (that is, the "hatched" spores) have poor survival outside of an animal or human host; colony counts decline to undetectable within hours following inoculation into water. This contrasts with the environmentally hardy properties of the B. anthracis spore, which can survive for decades. (the size of anthrax spores have been variously reported in different sources as about 1.0 micron and from 2-6 microns) (May 12, 1999)

There is a debate if the above findings are true and some scientist have found that anthrax spores can be very resistant against chlorine and the concentration need to be increased to safely treat anthrax contaminated water. See link below
Trip Reports - Painted, spotted and striped animals of the Koppies, TT of Three Arid Parks near Namibia in April 2015

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Re: How safe is the water to drink?

Unread postby Exbrakpanite » Mon Dec 03, 2012 2:36 pm

We spend 4-6 months each year travelling to various parks in Africa. We are sometimes worried about the water and have started using the "steripen" which apparently very effectively sterilises clear water (filter supplied)with UV light

We will soon be discussing our experience with it on ourtravel tips section our website but just returned from Africa yesterday.

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Re: How safe is the water to drink?

Unread postby Shidzidzii » Mon Dec 03, 2012 7:01 pm

Do not drink the Anthrax water! Have a beer, wine, cider or even a soft drink instead. That is what mankind did to survive the dark ages.

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