Skip to content

SANParks.org Forums

View unanswered posts | View active topics






Post new topic Reply to topic  Page 14 of 33
 [ 485 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 ... 33  Next
Author Message
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Wed Jan 23, 2013 9:32 am 
Offline
Virtual Ranger
Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Mon Mar 05, 2012 11:46 am
Posts: 1967
Location: Pretoria North
Hey Charbel, great stuff the H7, will be waiting.............

_________________
Stop the MADNESS or Imagine RhiNOs!
Our natural heritage is being stolen from us one by one!
Make your voice heard and please support a Rhino Project!


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 3:29 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sat Nov 27, 2010 8:22 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Brazil
Here is the list of sightings in H7:
First, 5 Burchell’s Zebras and 2 Impalas. No pictures taken. Time on our ankles and already too many zebras for one day…. Yes, they are never too many… but worried about time as we were.

In Nsemani Dam:
3 Hippos, 1 Egyptian Goose, 1 Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), 1 Southern Pochard (Netta erythrophthalma), 2 Blacksmith Lapwings (Plovers).

Back in the road:
1 Swainson’s Spurfowl (Francolin), 1 Magpie (African Longtailed) Shrike, 1 Cape Turtle-Dove (Streptopelia capicola), 1 Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), 1 Grey Go-Away Bird (Lourie), 1 European Roller, 1 Brown-Snake Eagle (Circaetus cinereus), 1 Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis), 4 Burchell’s Zebras + 4 Waterbucks, 1 Hadada Ibis (Bostrychia hagedash), 1 Leopard Tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis), 1 Dung Beetle, 4 African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus), 6 (African) White-Backed Vultures (Gyps africanus), 2 Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Four groups of male Impalas, 8 Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), and just before Orpen, seeming to be residents, 32 Blue Wildebeests + 3 Burchell’s Zebra + Impalas, in a mixed herd, and just some minutes later, another mixed herd, just by the entrance of the camp, with Burchell’s Zebras, Blue Wildebeests, and Africa Buffalos.

This was our second Grey Heron in the trip, since we had seen one in Shitlhave Dam, so far away that no good pictures could be taken. This time, in Nsemani Dam, the heron was closer, and some reasonable pics were possible. Here is one.

Image

This heron is classified as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List, even though its population trend is unknown. One of the reasons for the classification is its large distribution: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=106003715

We can find it in Oceania, Asia, Europe, and Africa. In Africa we have non breeding populations. The same is true of Spain, where I saw just two months ago a lot of Grey Herons, even more than in KNP. North of the equator, it is a migratory bird, due to climate reasons, but in southern Africa, it is resident, moving only occasionally in response to changes in habitat.

This is one of the lucky animals that benefit from our interventions to the environment and, thus, may survive the environmental crisis. It greatly benefited from the construction of artificial water bodies, as we can see in KNP and I just saw in Andalucia, in Spain.

But believe me, I can never get tired of them. They are gorgeous and impressive birds! But I am a suspect, because I love herons in general.

You can listen to their noisy calls here: http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?sp ... grey+heron

Many recordings, almost all from Europe.

As a heron, it generally favors shallow water bodies, such as estuaries, lagoons, rivers, lakes, the intertidal zone, marshes and dams.

Its feeding techniques are a highlight for this bird. It mainly eats fish and uses three different hunting techniques in order to catch them: (1) to wait at one spot for prey to come within striking distance; (2) to walk carefully through shallow water before ambushing prey – that’s what the heron we saw was doing, moving back and forth in the dam; (3) to drop into the water from the air.

This is a monogamous and usually colonial bird, often breeding in mixed-species colonies, although it may also nest alone or in small groups. There are a number of different displays used by the male in courtship, including one in which it calls from a prominent perch before throwing its head upward and giving a loud yelp.

For the first time, we found a Southern Pochard in the trip in KNP.

Image

In Xenocanto, we find three recordings of Southern Pochard, all from Brazil, in fact two from the state where I live: http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?sp ... n+Pochard+

Here is the distribution of Southern Pochard: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=100600471

This pochard is found in Southern and East Africa, in the Northeast of Brazil, and in some regions of other South American countries, such as Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, and Equador. It is a common bird in Southern Africa. It is found in wetlands with deep, clear water and emergent vegetation.

Southern Pochards ringed in the North-West Province have been found in northern Namibia, and even Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya, more than 3000 km away! Thus, they can really move long distances.

The species is classified as Least Concern, with decreasing population, in the IUCN Red List. The main threats come from the expansion of agriculture, from hunting, and from natural system modifications introduced by us.

It feeds mainly on seeds and leaves of aquatic plants. Very small amounts of invertebrates complete its diet. It usually forages by diving, sometimes travelling 18 m. It also dabbles and can forages on waterside vegetation, but only rarely.

It is a monogamous, solitary nester, with the nest built by the female using leaves and stems. The nest is placed on embankments surrounded by dense vegetation.

This was an incredible tree. Altogether, 1 Cape Turtle-Doves, 1 Swainson’s Spurfowl (Francolin) and 1 Magpie (African Longtailed) Shrike, and, it is incredible, but I just saw now, a bird I still did not identify. I took for granted it was a dove too, without magnifying the picture. But it is not. It is a Laughing Dove. Great diversity for one single dry tree!

Image

Cape-Turtle Doves are not threatened. On the contrary, Least Concern in the IUCN Red List with increasing population, even though they are hunted for sport and food. Indeed, they are very common in KNP. We saw hundreds… This is their distribution: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=106002506

They are found in Central, Southern, and East Africa.

There are several recordings of their calls in Xenocanto, under another common name, Ring-Necked Dove (quite adequate): http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?sp ... a+capicola

This dove mainly eats seeds, but also feeds on fruits, nectar, leaves and invertebrates. It usually forages on the ground, looking for seeds and fallen fruits.

All the other birds in that tree were already discussed in the TR. So, let’s move on.

A nice raptor to find is the Steppe Eagle. It was not close…

Image

And here is an attempt to get close to her

Image

which began to scream for some reason

Image

The Steppe Eagle, unfortunately, shows now decreasing populations, even though still classified as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List. The reason for this classification lies in the extremely large range of distribution, as you can see here: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=106003533

Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline does not seem rapid enough to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it does not seem to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). The global population is estimated to number more than 10,000 individuals.

This eagle is frequently electrocuted on power lines. Interestingly for conservation thinking, the number of migrants in Israel has halved since 1975. This is thought to have been largely caused by radioactive fallout from Chernobyl.

The populations found in South Africa are non breeding. They generally prefer savanna, open woodland and grassland. This is a raptor we only see in KNP in the summer. It is a palearctic breeding migrant, arriving in southern Africa in the period from October-November, moving nomadically in search of termite alate emergences (their main food), and then departing in the period from March to April.

The species has been regionally extinct in Moldava and Romania.

Two short recordings of their calls can be found in http://www.xeno-canto.org/browse.php?sp ... eppe+eagle

So, we were there, going down H7 and stop over and over again… The risk of not getting to Orpen in time was mounting… Wait for the next scenes… With a great encounter with an animal we read to be not so often seen….


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 6:43 am 
Offline
Virtual Ranger
Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Feb 07, 2010 5:26 pm
Posts: 1220
Location: Cape Town
The h7 is definitely one of our top roads and you have hit some amazing sightings. Thanks for all the bird info. Loved the photo of the screaming Steppe!

_________________
Trip Report 2014 April: Kruger Park Family Adventure


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 8:25 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Mar 29, 2011 9:36 am
Posts: 937
Location: Ermelo
Very nice charbel! :D

_________________
Im still In LOVE with my Kruger!


Home is where the Heart is and my Heart lies in the Kruger ...FACT!


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 4:10 pm 
Offline
Forum Assistant
Forum Assistant
User avatar

Joined: Fri Apr 06, 2007 6:39 am
Posts: 9592
Location: Pretoria SA
FAC Member (2012)
Absolutely STUNNING Charbel! I must agree with you, the Grey Heron is absolutely superb! But the Southern Pochard! Definitely not seen very often! :clap: :clap:

The variety of birds you have seen in the dry tree is wonderful! Unbelievable! And the Steppe .... you have hit the Jackpot! :dance: :dance:

_________________
"Happiness, I have discovered, is nearly always a rebound from hard work." - David Grayson


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 5:28 pm 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sat Nov 27, 2010 8:22 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Brazil
Hi Hilda,

hilda wrote:
Absolutely STUNNING Charbel! I must agree with you, the Grey Heron is absolutely superb! But the Southern Pochard! Definitely not seen very often! :clap: :clap:

The variety of birds you have seen in the dry tree is wonderful! Unbelievable! And the Steppe .... you have hit the Jackpot! :dance: :dance:


It is always great to find animals that are not so often seen. And H7 still reserved more surprises...

Thanks, Shenaung-Lee, still keeping the suspense...

Cape of storms...

Cape of Storms wrote:
The h7 is definitely one of our top roads and you have hit some amazing sightings. Thanks for all the bird info. Loved the photo of the screaming Steppe!


I do think the H7 is a top road. I plan to go back to KNP in 2015.... No Tamboti then, because I will probably with my daughter, at the time 2.5 years old... But definitely Orpen, to run the H7, Also, Timbavati was a great road in the days to come...

Cheers
Charbel


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Fri Jan 25, 2013 7:40 pm 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Mar 29, 2011 9:36 am
Posts: 937
Location: Ermelo
charbel wrote:
Hi Hilda,

hilda wrote:
Absolutely STUNNING Charbel! I must agree with you, the Grey Heron is absolutely superb! But the Southern Pochard! Definitely not seen very often! :clap: :clap:

The variety of birds you have seen in the dry tree is wonderful! Unbelievable! And the Steppe .... you have hit the Jackpot! :dance: :dance:


It is always great to find animals that are not so often seen. And H7 still reserved more surprises...

Thanks, Shenaung-Lee, still keeping the suspense...

Cape of storms...

Cape of Storms wrote:
The h7 is definitely one of our top roads and you have hit some amazing sightings. Thanks for all the bird info. Loved the photo of the screaming Steppe!


I do think the H7 is a top road. I plan to go back to KNP in 2015.... No Tamboti then, because I will probably with my daughter, at the time 2.5 years old... But definitely Orpen, to run the H7, Also, Timbavati was a great road in the days to come...

Cheers
Charbel


LOL charbel I noticed :D

_________________
Im still In LOVE with my Kruger!


Home is where the Heart is and my Heart lies in the Kruger ...FACT!


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 27, 2013 9:00 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sat Nov 27, 2010 8:22 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Brazil
Coming back to the sightings at H7, January 6th 2011 (unfortunately, with some threatened species), a nice sighting was this Hadada Ibis, a bird I already discussed in the TR.

Image

And then this small Leopard Tortoise crossing the road, running their risks in the tar road. It was just special. See how tiny she was, seen from our car.

Image

And here is a closer view. This is quite a beautiful tortoise, with its leopard-likes spots on the shell. This is like a fingerprinting. Each individual has its own patterns of spots.

Image

There is great demand for Leopard tortoises as pets. Thus, it is good that they are increasingly bred in captivity, since this should lead to a gradual reduction in the demand for animals caught in the wild. These animals suffer from animal traffic, being usually very stressed and dehydrated. This is a hideous crime, and I hope more and more people give up in keeping wild animals as pets.

In the wild, healthy populations still exist in rural areas, national parks and nature reserves. Another source of pressure, however, comes from the fact that many local peoples eat them. They are also exploited for ethnomedical reasons and for the production of tools. They are regarded as agricultural pests throughout its geographic range, particularly for plantations of pumpkins, beans, and cowpeas. For all these reasons, the Leopard Tortoise is considered vulnerable in areas with significant human populations. Unfortunately, there is not consistent information on conservation status. The species has not been assessed by IUCN yet.

The Leopard Tortoise we saw in H7 was small, but this is the fourth largest species of tortoise in the world, after the African spurred tortoise, the Galapagos tortoise, and Aldabra giant tortoise. They exhibit indeterminate growth. Females are often larger than males. Typical adults can reach 18-inch (460 mm) and weigh 40-pound (18 kg). Large individuals may be 70-centimetre (28 in) long and weigh up to 120-pound (54 kg). There is a giant Ethiopian form that may reach 100-centimetre (39 in) in rare cases.

They are herbivorous, with plant material corresponding to approximately 98% of their diet. Bone fragments and ash may be consumed in times of shortage. Leopard tortoises are important seed predators and disperse seeds throughout their environment. A variety of xeric and mesic habitats are occupied by them, ranging from dry arid plains to temperate grassland ecosystems. They are not found in damp or cold habitats. These tortoises spend most of their time in shrub habitat with low lying vegetation, which serves as their primary food source.

They are well camouflaged and difficult to capture, due to their thick, heavy shells. Highest predation rates are prior to hatching due to predation on eggs. Nearly 80% of hatchlings may eaten by predators such as foxes, coyotes, and mongooses. Their communication and perception are primarily visual.

They are the most widely distributed tortoise in Southern Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, it shows a wide distribution, although absent from all of West Africa and most of Central Africa.

In the wild, adult Leopard Tortoises may live for up to 100 years. No records are available for captive individuals.

After some busy dung beetles, gathering and rolling their balls to fight for females eager to lay eggs in these big environments entirely made of food…

Image

Image

One of the highest of the highest moments in the trip… We were approaching Orpen, still worried about getting to the gate, when we see several cars stopped and several others stopping at a specific point in the road. We approach as we manage to, trying to find a spot to see among so many cars. Finally, we see what is attracting everybody. Four African Wild Dogs preparing to sleep just besides the road, going to bed as good guys, not looking very disturbed by the car. We are tenacious and a bit irresponsible about time, and keep on waiting as people drive away. Finally, our sighting spot gets better and better, and so too our pictures.

Image

Image

And here is a cropped image of one of the pics.

Image

They were really going to bed. Good night, guys!

Image

Image

Unfortunately, they are classified as Endangered, with decreasing populations, in the IUCN Red List. Until 1998, they were Vulnerable but as the situation kept worsening, became Endangered since 1990.

It is a shame! Such a wonderful animal, a superb hunter, cooperative and intelligent to the extreme, so beautifully camouflaged within the savannah. And yet we may be responsible for their demise. Shame on us!

Parks like KNP are absolutely crucial to their survival through all their range of distribution, which can be seen here: http://maps.iucnredlist.org/map.html?id=12436

It seems that their populations have always existed at very low densities, but we really made things worse. The largest populations still extant are in southern Africa (especially northern Botswana, western Zimbabwe, eastern Namibia, and western Zambia) and the southern part of East Africa (especially Tanzania and northern Mozambique). Notice that in South Africa they are basically found in KNP. Notice also how scattered they are through Africa. These are the fragmented remnants of their previous distribution. These regions are separated by areas of unoccupied range and/or major geographical barriers, with no expectation of ever recovering connectivity. For this reason, IUCN also evaluates the viability of local populations.

Their population is currently estimated to comprise approximately 6,600 adults in 39 subpopulations, of which only 1,400 are mature individuals. Population size is continuing to decline as a result of ongoing habitat fragmentation, to which they are very sensitive due to their wide-ranging behavior; conflict with human activities, above all livestock and game farmers; accidengal killing by people in snares and road accidents (so, remember, always drive slowly in conservation parks); and infectious disease. All of these causes are associated with human encroachment on African Wild Dog habitat. They have not ceased and are unlikely to be reversible across most of the species’ historical range. For this reason, no expectation that the species can ever come back to its previous distribution. Its survival is highly dependent on protection in parks like KNP.

They are possibly extinct in The Democratic Republic of Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Guinea-Bissau; Mali; Nigeria; Togo; Uganda. And they are regionally extinct in Burundi; Cameroon; Egypt; Eritrea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Mauritania; Rwanda; Sierra Leone; Swaziland.

Here is a video from you tube where we can see how beautiful they are, and how they split the result of a hunting, and how they call each other: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYER3VIPF0I

Great stuff! Their calls are touching….

A high proportion of individuals in a pack of African Wild Dogs are reproductively suppressed, but these animals do not always become reproductive quickly if an alpha individual dies. In a mature pack, most pack members are offspring of the alpha pair. IUCN experts report that death of an alpha often leads to disintegration of the pack, with no breeding until new packs are formed.

African Wild Dogs are generalist predators, occupying a range of habitats including short-grass plains, semi-desert, bushy savannas and upland forest. They mostly hunt medium-sized antelopes. Whereas they weigh 20-30 kg, their prey average around 50 kg, and may be as large as 200 kg. How do they manage? Cooperative hunting by an organized social animal! In most areas their principal prey are Impala, Greater Kudu, Thomson's Gazelle and Blue Wildebeest. They can even chase larger species, such as Common Eland and African Buffalo, but rarely kill them. Small antelopes, such as Dik-dik, Steenbok and Duiker are important in some areas, and warthogs are also taken in some populations. African Wild Dogs also capture and eat very small prey such as hares, lizards and even eggs, but they make a very small contribution to their diet.


They show morphological and genetic variation in different parts of their geographic range. These animals are rarely seen, even where they are relatively common, so, we really felt lucky to see four of them! And we would meet them again in the coming days, not the same individuals.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 27, 2013 9:12 am 
Offline
Senior Virtual Ranger
Senior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Thu Jan 20, 2011 8:58 am
Posts: 4305
Location: Far South in South Africa.
:gflower: Birthday Lady :gflower: Thank you for a Stunning TR, pics and all the Info :clap: :clap: :clap:

_________________
"Lose yourself in Nature and find Peace!" (Ralph Waldo Emerson)
UNITE AGAINST POACHING...What we protect,
do not let poachers take it away!

Extinction is forever and survival is up to---every last one of us!


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 27, 2013 11:17 am 
Offline
Forum Assistant
Forum Assistant
User avatar

Joined: Fri Apr 06, 2007 6:39 am
Posts: 9592
Location: Pretoria SA
FAC Member (2012)
Beautiful picture of the Hadeda Ibis! They mostly go unnoticed because they are everywhere in our gardens, and their beauty are sometimes overlooked. What a cute little Leopard Tortoise Charbel! :clap: :clap:

Great Wild Dog sighting with beautiful pictures of them too! :dance: :dance:

Thanks for all the info! :thumbs_up:

_________________
"Happiness, I have discovered, is nearly always a rebound from hard work." - David Grayson


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 27, 2013 12:31 pm 
Offline
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
Distinguished Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Fri Jan 28, 2005 4:43 pm
Posts: 4327
Location: 133 days to go!
Love the tiny tortoise - Gorgeous :thumbs_up:

Thanks Charbel :popcorn:


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Sun Jan 27, 2013 7:48 pm 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sat Nov 27, 2010 8:22 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Brazil
Hi Philip, Hilda and Pumbaa,

Thanks! Soon I'll be back with more.
I just loved to see the wild dogs, and the tortoise was really something special, so small. We saw many others but not as small as this one.

Cheers
Charbel


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 28, 2013 6:19 am 
Offline
Legendary Virtual Ranger
Legendary Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jun 07, 2005 8:47 pm
Posts: 13205
Location: meandering between senility and menopause
FAC Member (2013)
Charbel, again, a very comprehensive report. You are always jam packed with information. I admire your dedication to knowledge.

:popcorn:

_________________
The bird doesn't sing because it has answers, it sings because it has a song.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Mon Jan 28, 2013 10:39 am 
Offline
Virtual Ranger
Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sun Feb 07, 2010 5:26 pm
Posts: 1220
Location: Cape Town
Leopard tortoise is beautiful!

Wild Dogs Amazing

_________________
Trip Report 2014 April: Kruger Park Family Adventure


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: Report of our first trip to Kruger - 3-14 January 2011
Unread postPosted: Tue Jan 29, 2013 3:21 am 
Offline
Junior Virtual Ranger
Junior Virtual Ranger
User avatar

Joined: Sat Nov 27, 2010 8:22 pm
Posts: 830
Location: Brazil
[quote="Meandering Mouse"]Charbel, again, a very comprehensive report. You are always jam packed with information. I admire your dedication to knowledge.

Thanks, Meandering Mouse, it is my work, it got me addicted to learning...

Cape of Storms, yes, the tortoise was just so beautiful little animal... And the wild dog! A must see!

Cheers
Charbel


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 485 posts ]  Go to page Previous  1 ... 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 ... 33  Next



Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Pikkie and 3 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Powered by phpBB © 2000, 2002, 2005, 2007 phpBB Group

Webcams Highlights

Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Addo Nossob Orpen Satara
Submitted by Trudie at 07:08:33 Submitted by kyknetta at 07:04:39 Submitted by kcilliers at 05:04:05 Submitted by Ton&Herma at 13:37:01